b) To enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications;
c) To benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science and culture.
3. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity.
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the benefits to be derived from the encouragement and development of international contacts and co-operation in the scientific and cultural fields.
The Right of Roma, Sinti and Travellers To Take Part In Cultural Life
Since the abolishment of the Caravan Act in 1999 (Woonwagenwet) there no longer is a national mobile homes policy. In a directory of the VROM (former-ministry of Housing, Land planning and the Environment) five policy options are directed to the municipalities concerning the enforcement of mobile home sites. The first policy option is the ‘zero-option’ aimed at the extinction of trailer parks. As a result, the municipalities can pursue an extinction policy through removing released sites, or actively, by offering different housing to residents (e.g. municipality of Utrecht).250
According to the European Court of Human Rights, “the occupation of a caravan is an integral part of the identity of travellers, even where they no longer live a wholly nomadic existence, and that measures affecting the stationing of caravans affect their ability to maintain their identity and to lead a private and family life in accordance with that tradition”.251 Furthermore, in 2015 the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has recommended the Netherlands “to take resolute measures to ensure that Travellers are provided with sufficient campsites, so as to be able to practice their traditions and preserve their identity”.252 However, the central government has not taken any action and municipalities maintain the extinction policy.253
The submitting parties recommend the Committee to urge the Dutch government to abolish the trailer parks extinction policy and to ensure that sufficient caravan sites are made available, so that Roma, Sinti and travellers can live in accordance with their culture and traditions.
The Protection of Minority Languages (Papiamento)
Even though Dutch is the official language of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, most people on the special municipality of Bonaire grow up with Papiamento as a mother language. Papiamento (or Papiamentu) is a Creole language containing elements of Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English and French, as well as Arawakan and African languages. It is spoken by about 330 000 people in Bonaire, Curaçao and Aruba. While Papiamento has been recognized by the Dutch Government as an official language on Bonaire, much remains to be done with regard to an integrated approach towards the facilitation, promotion and protection of this minority language. During a visit to Curaçao the UN working group of experts of people of African descent, it concluded that ‘[T]here are very few opportunities for children to study in the local language, leaving many, including those who speak Papiamiento, at a disadvantage. The education system is often Eurocentric, dominated by the Dutch language, history and literature over local perspectives,254 even though llanguage is a central element and expression of identity and of key importance in the preservation of group identity.255 Language rights have been referred to by the Committee as being part of the right to take part in cultural life.256
The submitting parties recommend the Committee to ask the Dutch government what measures it intends to take to ensure the right to language and own history on the BES islands.
‘Black Peter’ As A Breach Of The Right To Participate In Cultural Life (& 2 and 13 ICESCR)
The Netherlands has a yearly tradition of Saint Nicholas visiting the children with his servant ‘Black Peter’, bringing gifts and candy. While Black Peter has various cultural origins (for example, the black ravens of the Norse god Wodan), its most recent inspiration comes from the Moorish slave. As a result, Black Peter has black curly hair, a painted black face and big red lips. The UN CERD confirmed that that ‘the character of Black Pete is sometimes portrayed in a manner that reflects negative stereotypes of people of African descent and is experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery, which is injurious to the dignity and self-esteem of children and adults of African descent’.257
In the past years, many groups have protested against Black Peter, deeming him a racist relic of Dutch colonial rule.258 These protests have been met with resistance from national and local government, demonstrated by the (violent) arrest of some 80 silent and peaceful anti-racism protesters during the official parade in Gouda in November 2014. The debate around Black Peter is currently polarizing the Dutch community. Many black residents that are of African descent feel that Black Peter prevents them from enjoying the Saint Nicholas festival as it caricatures a black slave. In 2014, at the height of the debate, a record amount of complaints of racism was filed, predominantly by Dutch people of Surinamese, Antillean and African descent.259 Many racial slurs were witnessed on (social) media and in private circles. The argument that people of African descent have no right or role regarding the development of cultural traditions because they are not truly Dutch is often heard. Unfortunately the Dutch government has neglected its responsibility to counter such explicit racism, and to play a central role in fostering public understanding and awareness of structural racism.
The state is obliged to take active and effective steps to ensure that cultural life is inclusive and without discrimination.260 Furthermore, in a recent judgement by the court of first instance in Amsterdam, it was ruled that Black Peter constitutes a negative stereotype of individuals of African descent and a breach of their private life.261
The submitting parties recommend the Committee to ask the government for an update of the taken measures and impact regarding the efforts to reduce stereotypes of people of African descent and ensure an inclusive culture.
APPENIX A – articles 9 and 11 ICESCR A schematic example of the year 2016 of a family with two children aged 11 and 17:
In comparison: average fixed costs of a Dutch family:
Service costs, incl.water
Gas / electricity
Mobile phone contract
1 Sixth periodic report ICESCR, Kingdom of the Netherlands, February 2016, p. 6. (hereafter: Sixth Periodic Report 2016)
2 Compilation of Guidelines on the Form and Content of Reports to be Submitted by States Parties to the International Human Rights Treaties, HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6, 3 June 2009, p. 5, par. 9.
3 Compilation of Guidelines on the Form and Content of Reports to be Submitted by States Parties to the International Human Rights Treaties, HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6, 3 June 2009, par. 10.
4 Core document forming part of the reports of the States Parties, UN Doc. HRI/CORE/1/Add.66, 15 December 1995.
5 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (The Netherlands), UN Doc. E/C.12/NLD/CO/3 (Geneva: Thirty-seventh session of 6 – 24th November 2006), par. 11 and 19. (hereafter: CESCR Concluding Observations 2006)
6 CESCR Concluding Observations 2006, par. 6.
7 Report by the Commissioner for Human Rights Mr T. Hammarberg on his visit to the Netherlands 21 – 25 September 2008, CommDH (2009), (Strasbourg: 11th March, 2009), pp. 7-8, §13 and §14; Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: The Kingdom of the Netherlands, UN Doc. CRC/C/NLD/CO/3, (30th January 2009); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Concluding Observations of the Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (The Netherlands), CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/4 (Geneva: Thirty-seventh session of 15th January - 2nd February 2007), p. 3, §12.
8 J. Krommendijk (2015) XXXX. has studied the Dutch position on ICESCR-rights and his study reveals a very old-fashioned ‘Cold War’ type reasoning where it concerns these rights. The role of the ICESCR in domestic law- and decisionmaking, as well as case-law, seems exceptionally poor.
9Replies by the Government of the Netherlands to the list of issues, UN Doc. E/C.12/NLD/Q/4-5/Add (14 October 2010), par. 9-12.
10 A good example is the ECHR case of Hunde v. The Netherlands (July 2016) in which the ECHR rejected a claim for basic living conditions under article 3 ECHR for homeless persons in an irregular situation undocumented migrants. These type of migrants were already granted protection through a complaint before the European Social Committee, but the outcome was ignored by the Dutch government and Courts for the ‘lack of direct effect’ and bindingness of decisions of this Committee.
11 See for similar reprimands the letter of the SR on Extreme Poverty, SR on Housing and SR on Migration (25 February 2016), p. 7, 16-17.
12 Letter by three UN Special Rapporteurs (SR on Extreme Poverty; SR on Migration; SR on Housing) to the Dutch Government, ref.no. NLD 1/2016 (25 February 2016), p. 16.
13 64th Session of the United Nations General Assembly (New York: United Nations Headquarters, 24 September 2009).
14 Eg. TK 34300-VI nr. N (15 December 2015), https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-34300-VI-N-n1.pdf; Handelingen TK 33828 nr. 14, Motion of MP Voortman about ‘problems with ratification of Protocols’ (9 September 2015).
15 Eg Handelingen 2015-2016, Report of General Discussions, TK 33 826, nr 12 (6 August 2015).
16 TK 34300-VI nr. N (15 December 2015), p. 26; https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-34300-VI-N-n1.pdf.
17 A. Dibbets, A.Buyse & A. Timmer, Report: ‘The Legal Implications of Ratification of the ICESCR by the Netherlands’, commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, SIM/Utrecht University, February 2014.
18 Handelingen EK 2015-2016, TK 34485-VI (5 July 2016).
19 Maslowski, Naayer, Isac, Oonk & Van der Werf, Civil Compentences of Students in first years of Higher Education’, University of Groningen 2010.
20 Schulz, Ainley, Fraillon, Kerr & Losito, ‘Intial findings from the IEA International civic and citizenship education study’, Amsterdam, 2010; Wagenaar, Van der Schoot & Hemker, ‘Assessment active citizenship and social intregation, CITO 2011.
21 Report: ‘Social themes in class, how hard it is?’, Research conducted on request of the Ministry of Education, ITS, Radboud University Nijmegen June 2015.
22 Becoming a human rights friendly school. A guide for schools around the world, Amnesty International 2012, p. 4.
23 Attainment target 47 for middle schools. There is no further mention of the meaning and importance of human rights for (people in) the Netherlands. Neither is there any mention of the aims of education as laid down in article 13 ICESCR and article 29 CRC. In the current regulations on civic education (Toezichtkader Actief Burgerschap), basic values are presented as optional while human rights are not mentioned.
24 Speech by Kirsja Oudshoorn, Amnesty International Nederland and Chair of the Platform for Human Rights Education, during the Human Rights Dialogue on HRE in Parliament, 'Education in Human Rights in the Netherlands: too many direction, no compass’, (30 March 2015); Letter from the Platform on Human Rights Education to Parliament, ‘Input for round table Commission Education, Culture and Science about Citizenship, (21 September 2015).
25 National Action Plan on Human Rights, ‘The protection and promotion of human rights within the Netherlands’, December 2013 (English translation, February 2014), p. 57; See also Sixth Periodic Report 2016, par. 136.
26 Ministry of Education, Letter to Parliament, ‘Future-orientated basis of Education’, 17 November 2014.
27 National Action Plan on Human Rights, ‘The protection and promotion of human rights within the Netherlands’, December 2013 (English translation February 2014): https://www.government.nl/documents/policy-notes/2014/03/19/national-action-plan-on-human-rights.
28 OHCHR, Handbook on National Human Rights Plans of Action, 29 August 2002, p. 13-14: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/training10en.pdf.
29 Report of the Parliamentary debate on Human Rights in the Netherlands on 10 April 2014: https://www.tweedekamer.nl/vergaderingen/commissievergaderingen/details?id=2014A00258; Interim review NAP on Human Rights, 3 November 2014: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2014/11/03/tussenrapportage-nationaal-actieplan-mensenrechten-en-kabinetsreactie-op-de-jaarrapportage-mensenrechten-in-nederland-2013-van-.
30 The Netherlands gains a National Institute for Human Rights, 11 July 2008, available at www.regering.nl/Actueel/Persberichten_ministerraad/2008/juli/11/Nederland_krijgt_Nationaal_Instituut_ voor_de_Rechten_van_de_Mens; The Principles Relating to the Status and Functioning of National Institutions for Protection and Promotion of Human Rights (Paris Principles) (New York: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 48/134, 1993).
31 B.M. Oomen, ‘Rights for Others. The Slow Home-Coming of Human Rights in the Netherlands’, (Cambridge University Press 2013)
32 Letter to Parliament, ref.no. 985800-152663-DMO, (28 June 2016), p. 3.
33 Report of meeting of Senate, EK 2015/16, 33992, 27, (12 April 2016).
34 OECD/DAC, ‘The 0,7% GNI/ODA target – A History’, http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/the07odagnitarget-ahistory.htm; CESCR Concluding Observations Netherlands (2006) UN Doc. E/C.12/NLD/CO/3 (2006) par. 9; CESCR Concluding Observations Netherlands (2010) UN Doc. E/C.12/NLD/CO/4–5 para. 4(e); UN Sustainable Development Goals, Goal 17.2 reaffirms the international 0,7% target, see UN General Assembly ‘Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’, UN Doc A/RES/70/1 (25 September 2015), par. 43 and SGD 17.
35 UN Doc E/C.12/2008/2 (24 March 2009), question 9.
36 OECD/DAC Review of the Netherlands, http://www.oecd.org/dac/netherlands.htm (last accessed: 15 August 2016).
37 C. Vos, ‘ “Blamage”: budget development drops to 0,52% BNP’ (Volkskrant 24 September 2015);
38 ‘Asylum Reception helps Netherlands to attain development cooperation objectives’, Financial Daily Newspaper, (14 April 2016) http://fd.nl/ondernemen/1147483/asielopvang-helpt-nederland-aan-doel-ontwikkelingshulp; ‘Severe Criticism on Allocation of ODA’, Trouw Newspaper (April 2016); ‘2015 Aid Statistics: Many EU countries become the biggest recipients of their own aid’, Eurodad (13 April 2016) , https://www.eurodad.org/2015AidStatistics
39 ‘Three countries – Australia, Korea and Luxembourg – do not count refugee costs as ODA. Others – Austria, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden – saw refugee costs account for more than 20% of their ODA in 2015. […] The rise in refugee costs did not significantly eat into development programmes, with around half of donor countries using money from outside their aid budgets to cover refugee costs. […] The DAC is also looking at clarifying the rules for which refugee costs can be counted as ODA.’ Available at: From: http://www.oecd.org/development/development-aid-rises-again-in-2015-spending-on-refugees-doubles.htm
40 ‘Severe Criticism on Allocation of ODA’, Trouw Newspaper, (April 2016); C. Vos, ‘ “Blamage”: budget development drops to 0,52% BNP’, Volkskrant Newspaper, (24 September 2015).
41 ‘Netherlands does not benefit from the reductions in development assistance’, Volkskrant Newspaper, (5 augustus 2015).
42 See for this discussion in Dutch society eg. Opinion piece by J. van Dijk, ‘Development assistance turns over to promotion of Dutch business’, Trouw Newspaper, (28 August 2013).
43 Spearpoints of the current Dutch Development Cooperation Policy are: security and rule of law in developing countries; global water governance; sexual and reproductive rights; food security; equal treatment of women; climate change and development cooperation. The socio-economic spearheads (food, water), unlike the more civil and political spear heads, are not cast in human rights terms.
44 N. Righton, ‘Parliament looking for results of development aid without effect’, 23 November 2015: http://www.volkskrant.nl/binnenland/kamer-zoekt-vergeefs-naar-resultaat-ontwikkelingshulp~a4192641/; ‘Auditor critical of ‘development assistance grants’, Financial Newspaper, (31 March 2016) http://fd.nl/economie-politiek/1145575/rekenkamer-onvoldoende-zicht-op-effect-subsidie-aan-bedrijven; Court of Audit, ‘Report: Monitoring policies for development assistance: the financing channel for business’, (31 March 2016): http://www.rekenkamer.nl/dsresource?objectid=23902&type=org.
45 N. Righton, ‘Ploumen shows boxes full of research about effect of development aid’, Volkskrant Newspaper, (23 November 2015).
46 Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 3 on The Nature of States Parties Obligations (Art 2(1)) E/1991/23 (Geneva: 14th December 1990), §14: ‘The Committee wishes to emphasize that in accordance with Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter of the United Nations, with well-established principles of international law, and with the provisions of the Covenant itself, international cooperation for development and thus for the realization of economic, social and cultural rights is an obligation of all States. It is particularly incumbent upon those States which are in a position to assist others in this regard.’
47 ‘Cabinet gives 50 million to Africa for stopping migration’, Volkskrant Newspaper, (27 May 2015) http://www.volkskrant.nl/binnenland/kabinet-geeft-50-miljoen-aan-afrika-om-migratie-te-stoppen~a4039890/; Koert Linders, ‘EU support to dictators for migration stop’, NRC Newspaper, (9 juni 2016) http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/06/09/eu-hulp-aan-dictators-bij-migratiestop-1626165-a1507678
49 See letter to Dutch Government by three UN Special Rapporteurs (25 February 2016), which disputes that there is such direct evidence on migration control measures..
50 Koert Linders, ‘EU support to dictators for migration stop’, NRC Newspaper, (9 juni 2016) http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/06/09/eu-hulp-aan-dictators-bij-migratiestop-1626165-a1507678; or http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/06/08/ontmoedigen-en-verleiden-1625652-a1402314.
51 See also Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations in the Area of Economic Social and Cultural Rights (28 September 2011), Principles 15 and 29./
52 Decentralization letter, Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, (19 February 2013), No. 2013-0000108917.
53 E.g. Council for Criminal Justice and Youth Protection, Concept proposal Youth Act, Advice 25 October 2012 (w/r to new Youth Act); Vrij Nederland, ‘careful with decentralizing welfare system’, referring to criticism of all important advisers of the state: the Council of State, National Ombudsman, Centraal Planbureau, Raad voor Openbaar Bestuur, Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkelingen, etc.
54 G. Vonk, ‘The vulnerable welfare state, on legal aspects of severe poverty in the Netherlands’, Dutch Juristenblad (2015), Vol. 19, p. 12841286.
55 Commission on 'Sustainable legal aid scheme, ‘Interim Report of the Dutch Lawyer’s Associations’, June 2015.
56 Prof. Mr. C.F. Forder, honorary professor Rights of the Child, University of Amsterdam, at: http://rechtsbijstandjuistnu.nl/reactie-hoogleraar-c-forder-rechten-van-het-kind-op-bezuiniging-rechtsbijstand/
57Dutch Bar Association, ‘funded legal assistance’, 2015. See: https://www.advocatenorde.nl/9531/advocaten/gefinancierde-rechtsbijstand.
59 CEDAW General Recommendation no. 18 (gender and disability).
60 E. Klooster, S. Koçak & M. Day, ‘Role of discrimination in the market for trainees’, Knowledge Platform Integration ^& Society (2016); Lachhab, F.Z. & M.H. Vorthoren, ‘Research report Islamophobia’, Rotterdam SPIOR (2016).
61 College voor de Rechten van de Mens, ‘Role of Stereotypes in Entering the Labour Market’, July 2013, at: https://www.mensenrechten.nl/publicaties/detail/18402.
62 CESCR, General Comment 20 on ‘Non-Discrimination in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’, UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/20 (Geneva, 10th June 2009).
63 ‘Bruggen slaan’, coalition VVD-PvdA, (29 October 2012), p. 30
64 House of Representatives (Parliament), year of session 2011/12, nr. 33325, at: https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-33325-12.html
65 House of Representatives, 2011/12, No. 33325, 4; House of Representatives 2014/15, No. 333325, 11.
66 ‘Exclusion Municipal Administration in conflict with the Law’, Newspaper Curacao (6 February 2014), at: http://www.kkc-curacao.com/uitsluiting-in-strijd-met-de-wet/
67 ‘University education enrollment figures ’VSNU - Association of Universities in the Netherlands’, Monitor Technology Pact 2016.
68 See: National Network of Female Professors, ‘Monitor Women Professors 2015, Executive Summary’ (19 November 2015), available at: http://www.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/352.pdf.
69 GCI is larger than 1 when personnel are underrepresented in the higher rank as compared to the one below that, see ibid.
70 See for instance CEDAW, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (The Netherlands), UN Doc. CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/5 (Geneva: Forty-fifth session of 18 January-5 February 2010), par. 34-35.
71 Similar commitments have been made with regard to all other aspects of science.
72 L. Bijleveld, ‘Domestic work in the Netherlands: a job like no other’, (2015) 1 European Equality Law Review, p. 37-52.
73 See CEDAW, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (The Netherlands), UN Doc. CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/5 (Geneva: Forty-fifth session of 18 January-5 February 2010), par. 19; Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Right, General Comment No. 23 on the right to just and favourable conditions of work, UN Doc E/C.12/GC/23 (Geneva: 27th April 2016) par. 53; See CESCR, General Comment No. 16 on the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights, UN Doc E/C.12/2005/4 (Geneva: 11 August 2005) par. 13.
74 K. Kloosterboer, ‘Child in the Centre: Childrenrights in Asylum Centers’, (The Hague: Unicef Nederland, 2009) (only available in Dutch).
75 Decision on imposition of the policy for penalties Foreign Workers Employment Act 2016, at: https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stcrt-2016-37043.html.
76 C.J. Laban, ‘Dutch study Iraqi asylum seekers. Impact of a long asylum procedure on health and health related dimensions among Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. An epidemiological study’, (Dissertation, VU University Amsterdam, 2010); Report WODC [Research and Documentation Centre of the Ministry of Justice],Evaluation of a pilot to activate residents of family sites, The Hague: cahiers 2015-06.
77 See Dutch Government, ‘Monitor Labour Market April 2015’ (19 May 2015), available at: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2015/05/19/monitor-arbeidsmarkt-april-2015 (only available in Dutch), p. 18.
78 Ibid., p. 10.
80 See Dutch Government, 'National Action Plan against Discrimination on the Labour Market' (17 May 2014), available at: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2014/05/16/bijlage-actieplan-arbeidsmarktdiscriminatie-overzicht-algemene-acties (only available in Dutch).
81 See Dutch Government, 'Start campaign Discrimination on Labour Market' (31 May 2016), available at: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2016/05/31/start-campagne-arbeidsmarktdiscriminatie (only available in Dutch).
82 Dutch Prime Minister, ‘Rutte: Discriminatie los je zelf maar op’, NRC Newspaper (18 March 2015) http://www.nrcreader.nl/artikel/8412/rutte-discriminatie-los-je-zelf-maar-op.
83 See Dutch Penal Code (adopted 3 March 1881, amended 1994), Art. 137(g)(1).
84 A. Bhikhie, ‘House of Representatives alarms about discrimination on labour market’ (18 February 2016), available at: http://www.nu.nl/politiek/4216613/tweede-kamer-luidt-noodklok-discriminatie-arbeidsmarkt.html.
85 See for example the following case: 'Utrechtse brokerage denies racism in an inappropriate mail’, (25 May 2016), available at: http://www.nu.nl/binnenland/4267353/utrechtse-makelaardij-ontkent-racisme-in-ongepaste-e-mail.html.
86 See H. Wagenaar, S. Altink and H. Amesberger, ‘Final Report of the International Comparative Study of Prostitution Policy: Austria and the Netherlands’ (The Hague: Platform 31, 2013); M. Wijers, ‘Fifteen years lifting of the ban on brothels: the struggle of policy makers between sex workers as agents or victims’, in: R. Piotrowicz, C. Rijken and B. Heide Uhl (eds.), Handbook of Human Trafficking (London: Routledge, forthcoming in 2016); evaluation reports w/r to lifting brothel prohibition.
87 CESCR, General Comment No. 18 on the right to work, UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/18 (Geneva: Thirty-fifth session of 7-25 November 2005), § 10.
88 Black Book presented to minister of justice on 16 June 2016 by Proud, an interest group of sex workers, House of Representatives, 97e meeting, 16 June 2016.
89 Y. Bleeker, L. Heuts, M. Timmermans, G. Homburg, ‘Seks workers speak out. The social position of sex workers in the Netherlands in 2014’, (Amsterdam: Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek, 2014).
90 CEDAW, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (The Netherlands), UN Doc. CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/5 (Geneva: Forty-fifth session of 18 January-5 February 2010), par. 31.
91 CBS, ‘Disabled people: gender and age’, (31 October 2014), available at: http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=70985NED&D1=0-2&D2=0,2&D3=a&D4=0&D5=9-14&HDR=T,G2&STB=G1,G3,G4&VW=T (own calculation).
92 See CBS, ‘Individuals with indication residential care: zzp and use’, (20 August 2015), available at: http://mlzstatline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=40013NED&D1=0&D2=l&D3=0,15,46&D4=3&D5=0,l&D6=(l-4)-l&HDR=G1,G2,T,G4&STB=G3&VW=T.
93 Netherlands Institute for Social Research, ‘Care understood better’ (4 December 2014), available at: http://www.scp.nl/Publicaties/Alle_publicaties/Publicaties_2014/Zorg_beter_begrepen (only available in Dutch), p. 108.
94 Samenvoordeklant.nl, ‘Analyse convenanten en marktbewerkingsplannen regionale Werkbedrijven’ (25 September 2015), available at: http://www.samenvoordeklant.nl/sites/default/files/bestandsbijlage/analyse_convenanten_regionale_werkbedrijven_def.pdf#overlay-context=actueel/nieuws/analyse-convenanten-marktbewerkingsplannen (only available in Dutch), p. 24.
95 P. van Echtelt, R. Schellingerhout and M. De Voogd-Hamelink, ‘Demand for Labour 2015’ (9 September 2015) available at: http://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Summaries_by_year/Summaries_2015/Demand_for_labour_2015, p. 11.
96 CESCR, General Comment No. 18 on the right to work, UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/18 (Geneva: Thirty-fifth session of 7-25 November 2005), par. 17.
97 Law Minimum Wage and Minimum Holiday Allowance, (27 November 1968).
98 Council of Europe, 9th National Report on the implementation of the European Social Charter submitted by the government of the Netherlands, RAP/RCha/NLD/9(2016) (2 November 2015), p. 8.
100 J. Van der Veer, G. Waverijn, P. Spreeuwenberg, M. Rijken, ‘Work and income: key data and trends. Report of 2013’, Utrecht: NIVEL, 2013).
102 CBS, ‘Average income. Private households devided by various characteristics’, (7 September 2015), available at: http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=70843ned&D1=0,6&D2=0&D3=0,53&D4=a&HDR=G3,T&STB=G1,G2&VW=T.
103 ‘2016 is a better year for your income’, Nibud (15 September 2015) available at: http://www.nibud.nl/beroepsmatig/2016-gunstig-jaar-voor-portemonnee/; ‘Recipient for care loses purchasing power in the lottery’, Ieder(in) (15 September 2015), available at: https://iederin.nl/nieuws/17660//sterke-daling-koopkracht-voor-mensen-met-een-beperking.
104 See CESCR, General Comment No. 23 on the right to just and favourable conditions of work, UN Doc E/C.12/GC/23 (Geneva: 27th April 2016), par. 47(c).
105 Sixth Periodic Report 2016, par. 56.
106 CESCR, Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (The Netherlands), UN Doc. E/C.12/NDL/CO/4-5 (Geneva: Forty-fifth session of 1–19 November 2010), par. 17; see also CEDAW, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (The Netherlands), UN Doc. CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/5 (Geneva: Forty-fifth session of 18 January-5 February 2010), par. 39.
107 Advisory Committee on Services to Householdings, “Dienstverlening aan huis: wie betaalt de rekening?”
(March 2014) Annex to: Parliamentary Papers II 2013/14 29 544 no. 507, p. i (only available in Dutch).
108 L. Bijleveld, ‘Domestic work in the Netherlands: a job like no other’, (2015) 1 European Equality Law Review, pp. 37-52.
109 Court of Appeal Arnhem-Leeuwarden, 5 november 2013, ECLI:NL:GHARL:2012:8304, JAR 2014, 12, m.nt. E. Cremers-Hartman; E. Cremers-Hartman, ‘Is een alfahulp in dienst van de thuiszorginstelling?’ (Is an alfahelp employed by a homecare institution?), annotation of the judgement by Court of Appeal Arnhem-Leeuwarden 5 November 2013, JAR 2014/12; CRvB 4 December 2013, USZ 2014/34, m.nt. E. Alink.
110 L. Bijleveld, ‘Domestic work in the Netherlands: a job like no other’, (2015) 1 European Equality Law Review, p. 37-52.
111 E. De Haan, “Polish migrant workers still frequently face abuse in the Netherlands”, SOMO (28 June 2016) available at: https://www.somo.nl/polish-migrant-workers-still-frequently-face-abuse-netherlands/.
112 Dennis l’Ami, ‘Wrongsdoings I saw when I lifted crates between Polish persons for ten months’, Newspaper: De Correspondent (28 June 2016) available at: https://decorrespondent.nl/4807/Deze-misstanden-zag-ik-toen-ik-tien-maanden-kratten-tilde-tussen-de-Polen/598090953845-7cd98625.
114 K. McGauran, E.de Haan, F. Scheele & F. Winsemius, “Profiting from dependency: Working conditions of Polish migrant workers in the Netherlands and the role of recruitment agencies”, FairWork and Somo (June, 2016), available at: https://www.somo.nl/polish-migrant-workers-still-frequently-face-abuse-netherlands/, p. 37.
115 E. de Haan, “Polish migrant workers still frequently face abuse in the Netherlands”, SOMO (28 June 2016) available at: https://www.somo.nl/polish-migrant-workers-still-frequently-face-abuse-netherlands/.
116 See CESCR, General Comment No. 23 on the right to just and
favourable conditions of work, UN Doc E/C.12/GC/23 (Geneva: 27th April 2016) § 5, 59I and § 47(e).
119 Booi, Lindeman & Slot, ‘Monitor EU-migrants 2013’, Amsterdam, 2014; Bertram & Aartsen, ‘Progress Report EU labour migration’, (The Hague, 2014).
120 K. McGauran, E. de Haan, F. Scheele & F. Winsemius, “Profiting from dependency: Working conditions of Polish migrant workers in the Netherlands and the role of recruitment agencies”, FairWork and Somo (June, 2016), available at: https://www.somo.nl/polish-migrant-workers-still-frequently-face-abuse-netherlands/, p. 59.
121 FLEX, Fair Work & Adpare, “Pro-Act Working Paper: Pilot Strategies for Pro-Active Identification and Support to Victims of Trafficking for Labour Exploitation” (July 2015) available at: http://www.labourexploitation.org/publications/pro-act-working-paper-pilotstrategies-pro-active-identification-and-support-victims.
122 CESCR, General Comment No. 23 on the right to just and favourable conditions of work, UN Doc E/C.12/GC/23 (Geneva: 27th April 2016) § 48.
123 For instance in the case of ADO Den Haag – Riechedly Bazoer, see 'Boete ADO voor racisme richting Bazoer', De Telegraaf (8 March 2016), available at: http://www.telegraaf.nl/telesport/voetbal/adodenhaag/25346907/___Boete_ADO_in__zaak-Bazoer____.html#voetbal/227/fixtures/.
124 See KNVB, ‘Tuchtrechtspraak betaald voetbal’, available at: http://www.knvb.nl/themas/sportiviteit-en-respect/tuchtrechtspraak/betaald-voetbal.
125 See Ministry of Security and Justice, ‘Letter in response to questions of the House of Representatives regarding racial harassment in Dutch professional football’ (4 March 2016) , p. 5, available at: < https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2016/03/07/antwoorden-kamervragen-over-racistische-uitlatingen-supporters-ado-den-haag-tijdens-wedstrijd-tegen-ajax>.
126 Staatsblad 2014, 494.
127 Allers J, ‘Bezuinigingen in het licht van sociale grondrechten’, Vol. NTM/NJCM Bull, 40 (3) (2015), p. 290 - 292
131 Region plan, ‘Final report. Exploring information study abuse elderly: approach, yields and bottlenecks’, No. 14170’, (Amsterdam: 2015); ‘Elder abuse are subjected to more than just bruises’, NRC Newspaper, 15 June 2016.
132 G. Vonk, ‘Repressive welfare state’, NJB Vol. 2, (17 january 2014), p. 95.
133 VNG (association of Dutch municipalities), ‘Resultaat uitvraag praktijkervaring kostendelernorm’, 2016. Letter to Parliament by Save the Children and Defence for Children, Federation shelter (Association of (women’s) shelters and assisted living), Letter to Parliament, 23 February 2015;
134 Discrimination of minors based on the immigration status of their parents is explicitly forbidden by article 2.2. CRC.
135 Workinggroup Children in AZC (coalition of child right’s NGO’s), ‘In one word it is here … stupid’: research of the welfare and perspective of children and young people in family locations’, October 2014.
136 District court of The Hague, No. 14 / 5065 BEPTDN, (2 October 2014).
137 Children Ombudsman, Report: 2013/171, KOM/005/2013, (14 November 2013).
138 See. e.g. Moser v Austria, ECtHR 21 September 2006, app.no. 12643/02.
139 CEDAW; Council of Europe’s Istanbul Convention (2014).
140 K.B.M. de Vaan, M.M. de Boer M.C. Vanoni, ‘Gender scan approach to domestic violence’, Region plan, (2013).
141 Speech Eva Kwakman, national prosecutor youth and family, ‘Expert meeting domestic and sexual violence’, Association Women and Law, 23 June 2016.
142 See the most recent convention with regard to protection of women’s victims of violence: Council of Europe’s Istanbul Convention of 2014.
143 Connie Rijken et al., ‘Human trafficking: the victim perspective. An exploratory study to the needs and interests of human trafficking in the Netherlands’, Tilburg: Intervict 2013, p. 148-150.
145 Quality Framework preventing sexual abuse in youth care.
146 Ministry of VWS, ‘Quick scan reporting code domestic violence and child abuse’, 2015.
147 Signalement Inspectie Jeugdzorg ‘Geen plaatsing gesloten jeugdzorg zonder machtiging rechter’, August 2015 [report of the inspection of youth care to the government].
148 High Council, No. ECLI:NL:HR:2012:BW5328 (21 September 2012).
149 See House of Representatives of the Dutch Parliament, (15 April 2015), available at: https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-19637-1994.html
150 Afdeling Raad van State, No. ECLI:NL:RVS:2015:3415; Centrale Raad van Beroep, No. ECLI:NL:CRVB:2015:3803, idem:3834, idem:4093 (26 November 2015).
151 ‘The viscous reality of return and departure’, Journal: Groene Amsterdammer (18 november 2015).
152 OHCHR, letter of 25 February 2016, ref.: OL NLD 1/2016.
153 CESCR, General Comment 3 on The Nature of States Parties Obligations (Art 2(1)) UNDoc. E/1991/23 (Geneva: 14th December 1990), par. 10; “Women and Adequate Housing,” Study by the Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing, 2005, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2005/43 (Geneva: 25 February 2005), par. 51.
154 See, for example: Report UNICEF, ‘Child Rights within the Caribbean Countries and Dutch Caribbean public entities in the Kingdom of the Netherlands’, 2011-2012; Netherland Institute for Human Rights, ‘Advice: Towards a human rights acceptable level of facilities for the Caribbean Netherlands’ (April 2016); and Evaluation Caribbean Netherlands, ‘Joined together for five years: Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba and European Netherlands’, (December 2015).
155 Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – the Netherlands (E.C.12.NLD.CO.4-5) 19 November 2010, Geneva.
156 Report UNICEF, ‘Children Rights within the Caribbean Countries and Dutch Caribbean public entities in the Kingdom of the Netherlands’, 2011-2012. See: https://www.unicef.nl/wat-doet-unicef/kinderrechten-in-nl/koninkrijkskinderen/childrights/
157 House of Representatives (28 August 2014), Doc. 20132014-2798, available at: http://pilpnjcm.nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ah-tk-20132014-2798-22.pdf
158 CESCR, General Comment No.15: The Right to Water, UN Doc. E/C. 12/2002/11, (20 January 2003), par. I.1.
159 M. Roggenkamp and K. de Graaf, ‘Earthquak risks in Groningen’, (28 January 2014) via: http://www.milieurecht.nl/main.php?id=138.
160 NAM: Facts and Figures, via: http://www.nam.nl/nl/about-nam/facts-and-figures.html (last accessed 9 August 2016). Note that the factual governance structure and the role of the Dutch government therein is quit complex: https://www.onderzoeksraad.nl/nl/onderzoek/1991/aardbevingsrisico-s-in-groningen/publicatie/1620/veiligheid-geen-rol-bij-gaswinning-groningen; M. Roggenkamp and K. de Graaf, ‘Earthquake risks in Groningen’, (28 January 2014)
161 E.g. from 2010 to 2016 there have been 587 registered earth quakes, of which up to 5 earth quakes per year stronger than 2.5 on the Scale of Richter and at least one stronger than 3.0 every year. In 2016 there have been 63 quakes at the time of writing, of which one between 2.0 and 2.5. Between 2000 and 2009 there were 315 registered quakes, including stronger than 2.5 and 3.0 as well. Figures via ‘Facts and Figures: Earthquakes’, http://www.namplatform.nl/feiten-en-cijfers/feiten-en-cijfers-aardbevingen.html.
162 Local authorities have recently challenged the new threshold for volumes of gas to be extracted in 2016-2021 according to the newly submitted gas extraction plan of the NAM and the concept reaction of the Minister of Economic Affairs: http://www.dvhn.nl/groningen/Groningse-overheden-gaskraan-moet-verder-dicht-21550921.html (9 August 2016).
163 See Research Council for Safety, ‘Aardbevingsrisicos in Groningen’ [Earth quake risks in Groningen] (2015) https://www.onderzoeksraad.nl/nl/onderzoek/1991/aardbevingsrisico-s-in-groningen/publicatie/1620/veiligheid-geen-rol-bij-gaswinning-groningen. This study concluded that up until 2013 the safety of inhabitants had never played a role in decision-making surrounding the gas extraction. In fact, the study found that decision-making structures were thus closed off from other interests, and that the Ministry of Economic Affairs was so fully part of this closed structure, focused on the interests of extraction, that safety was of little concern and that there was very little room for critical voices or pressures from other Ministries or civil society; Also e.g. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/aardbevingen-in-groningen/nieuws/2016/06/24/gaswinning-groningen.
164 ‘Welke panden staan ook op instorten?’ [Which buildings are also about to collapse?’] (RTVNoord 18 November 2013) http://www.rtvnoord.nl/nieuws/127003/Welke-panden-staan-ook-op-instorten; ‘Twee op de drie huizen in Groningen niet veilig’ [ Two out of three houses in Groningen not safe] (NRC Newspaper, 24 April 2015) http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2015/04/20/twee-op-de-drie-huizen-in-groningen-niet-veilig-1486539-a654093; http://www.dvhn.nl/groningen/Groninger-spant-kort-geding-aan-tegen-NAM-21469181.html (30 June 2016); http://www.dvhn.nl/archief/Applaus-en-tranen-bij-sloop-bevingshuizen-20866160.html (15 April 2015).
165 ‘NAM bought him out. Now he lives on the streets’, (31 May 2016) , at: http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/05/31/de-nam-kocht-hem-uit-nu-leeft-hij-op-straat-1623963-a993642.
166 E.g see http://nos.nl/artikel/2102104-groningse-aardbevingen-leiden-ook-tot-gezondheidsklachten.html (29 April 2016).
167 Court of First Instance (2 September 2015) ECLI:NL:RBNNE:2015:4185; Council of State (15 November 2015) 201501544/1/A4.
168 The National Institute of Human Rights has been very much concerned with the effects of earth quakes, and Dutch courts have already held the European Convention of Human Rights to be of relevance in decision-making on the gas-extraction. Eg. Council of State (15 November 2015) 201501544/1/A4, paras. 36-41.
169 Basic Principles and Guidelines on Development Induced Evictions and Displacement: Annex 1 of the report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living’, UN Doc A/HRC/4/18 (2007), at: www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Housing/Guidelines_en.pdf.
170Figures on the number of houses to be reinforced range from 220.000 to 170.000 houses, to ‘a number of ten thousands houses’ to ‘100 houses’ according to recent NAM figures. In 2015, the Minister of Economic Affairs committed to reinforcing 3.000 houses, which was not even closely realized. In fact, according to a recent progress report of the National Coordinator so far 405 houses have been reinforced, of which 309 not according to the new building code for earth quake prove building. In the first quarter of 2016, only 78 houses were reinforced, of which 54 according to the new building guidelines and 24 not. Nationaal Coordinator Groningen, ‘Rapportage eerste kwartaal 2016 Nationaal Coördinator Groningen’ (17 May 2016) p. 5-6.
171 NAM for example recently offered 10 million euro to buy out people in one of the most severely struck areas in the Province (town of Loppersum) for which 115 eligible home owners were registered (compensation would occur at 95% of taxation value, not the full market value apparently). This compensation was ultimately afforded on the basis of a lottery, excluding many home owners from this measure based on luck, not needs. See eg. http://nos.nl/artikel/2108700-opkoopregeling-groningen-fors-overtekend.html;http://www.ad.nl/binnenland/nam-koopt-huizen-op-in-bevingsgebied-groningen~a284edb8/; https://www.dvhn.nl/groningen/Opkoopregeling-NAM-leed-met-leed-vergelijken-21474473.html (4 July 2016); Also see the recent call of the Groningen Province to take away the NAM’s control in matters of settling compensation: https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/08/06/groningen-wil-kleinere-rol-nam-bij-vergoeding-3540557-a1515011 (6 August 2016).
172 Council of State, No. 201501544/1/A4 (15 November 2015), par. 41.
173 Dutch Youth Act (15 March 2014), Stb. 2014,105.
174 Dutch Ombudsman for Children, Report ‘The care they are entitled to’ (18 March 2016), p. 60. Available at:
175 Monitor Youth Transition, ‘Report of the First quarter of the Year 2016’ (April 2016), available at:
176 LHV, ‘Children’s Ombudsman collaboration between doctors and commune team is insufficient’ (24 March 2016), available at: https://www.lhv.nl/actueel/nieuws/kinderombudsman-samenwerking-tussen-huisarts-en-wijkteam-onvoldoende
177 Monitor Transition Youth, ‘Parents need concrete information about Youth Care’ (June 2016), available at: http://www.monitortransitiejeugd.nl/nieuws/nieuws-juni-2016
178 LHV, ‘Doctors concerned about waiting lists and privacy of the Youth Care’ (23 September 2015), available at: https://www.lhv.nl/actueel/nieuws/huisartsen-bezorgd-over-wachtlijsten-en-privacy-jeugdzorg
179 National Care Guide, ‘Parents often pay themselves for the psychological treatment of their Child’ (9 November 2015), available at: https://www.nationalezorggids.nl/jeugdzorg/nieuws/27966-ouders-betalen-vaker-zelf-voor-psychische-behandeling-kind.html
180 General Comment No. 14, par. 12(a) and (b).
181 Except for asylum seekers in a reception centre for asylum seekers, victims of human trafficking and women in a social care home.
182 Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS), ‘Policy letter on interpreter-translators (inzet tolken)’, 119322-104128-MC,
28 May 2013.
183 S. Broersen, ‘Doctors in trouble without an interpreter fee’, Journal: Arts & Patiënt 2014, p. 582-583, available at:
184 Factsheet Asylum seekers and Health October 2015. Pharos Knowledge Centre Health differences.
185 General Comment No. 14, para 12.
186 Committee on Medical Care, ‘Arts en Vreemdeling’ (Klazinga c.s. 2007), http://www.pharos.nl/documents/doc/i01-rapport_arts_en_vreemdeling.pdf
187 Dutch Care Institute 2016, ‘Undocumented People who cannot be insured’ (2016), available at: https://www.zorginstituutnederland.nl/verzekering/onverzekerbare+vreemdelingen
188 Breed Medisch Overleg, ‘Voor hun kiezen...’ (Utrecht 2010), available at: http://zoekservice.mensenrechten.nl/StippWebDLL/Resources/Handlers/DownloadBestand.ashx?id=2953
189 Dutch Care Institute 2016, ‘Undocumented People who cannot be insured’ (2016), available at: https://www.zorginstituutnederland.nl/verzekering/onverzekerbare+vreemdelingen#Apotheken
190 National Ombudsman, ‘2013/15: Private research on medical care for asylum seekers’(3 October 2013), available at: https://www.nationaleombudsman.nl/onderzoeken/2013/125
191 Recommendations by the National Institute of Human Rights, ACVZ and National Ombudsman, https://www.mensenrechten.nl/publicaties/detail/36258
192 Letter of Doctors of the World to Lampion (25 April 2016), available at: http://zoeken.amsterdam.raadsinformatie.nl/cgi-bin/showdoc.cgi/action=view/id=294371/type=pdf/Bijlage_3.Mandates_of_special_rapporteur_on_human_rights_25.02.16.pdf
193 See e.g.: A. Keller et al, ‘Mental health of detained asylum seekers.’, Journal: The Lancet (2003), p. 362: 1721-1723; Steel et al, ‘Impact of immigration detention and temporary protection on the mental health of refugees’, The British Journal of Psychiatry’ (2006), p. 188:58-64; Robjant, K., Hassan, R., & C. Katona, ‘Mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers: systematic review’, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2007), p. 194(4), 306–312.
194 Amnesty International, Doctors of the World, Stichting LOS, Immigration Detention Hotline, ‘Lock up or protect? Vulnerable people in AImmigration Detention’, (April 2016).
195 House of Representatives, ‘Law on return and immigration detention’ (30 September 2015), available at: https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/wetsvoorstellen/detail?id=2015Z18003&dossier=34309
196 Also research shows that the length of stay in detention has an adverse effect on (mental) health. See e.g. Robjant, K., Hassan, R. & Katona, C., ‘Mental Health Implications of Detaining Asylum Seekers: a Systematic Review’. British Journal of Psychiatry (2009), p. 194, 306-312; Jesuit Refugee Service – Europe, ‘Becoming Vulnerable in Detention. Migrants in the European Union’, Civil Society Report on the Detention of Vulnerable Asylum Seekers and Irregular (The DEVAS Project)(2011); European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, ‘The conditions in centres for third country national’, Doc. REF: IP/C/LIBE/IC/2006-181 (2011), STEPS Consulting Social study for European Parliament (CONTRACT REF: IP/C/LIBE/IC/2006-181). p. 15-16; Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, Ministerie Veiligheid en Justitie, ‘Van bejegening tot vertrek. Een onderzoek naar de werking van vreemdelingenbewaring’ (2013).
197 For a more detailed description of the different regimes, cf. A.M. Kalmthout, “Immigration custody,” in: E.R. Muller en P.C. Vegter (eds.), ‘Detention. Locked up in the Netherlands’, (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer, 2009), p. 325-330.
198 Main improvements are less time behind closed doors (12 instead of 17 hours – art. 22 proposal), 2 instead of 1 hour of fresh air - art. 23.2 proposal; and a maximum of 4 hours visit each week (used to be 2 hours) - art. 29.1 proposal. The proposal is more strict when it comes to a special kind of intake-regime (‘beheersregime’) which can last for a maximum of 2 weeks - art. 17 proposal. No changes are perceived for days spent in a police cell (4) and no possibility of work.
199 B. Boermans, ‘Exploided and in jail! Victims of trafficking in Immigration Detention’, (January 2009), available at: BlinN-Humanitas/Oxfam Novib.
200 Appendix with: Kamerstuk No. 19637/2008, (20 May 2015)
201 Amnesty International, Doctors of the World, Stichting LOS, Immigration Detention Hotline, ‘Isolation in
Immigration Detention’, (2015). For the English summary: http://www.doktersvandewereld.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Summary-report-Isolation-in-Immigration-Detention.pdf and Data received after a request on publicity of administration (Dutch: verzoek met beroep op de Wet openbaarheid van bestuur) of de Volkskrant Newspaper: From January till July 2015 209 punitive and order measures were imposed, from which 155 in an isolation cell. 126 times isolation was imposed as an order measure. 102 of the 154 order measures were because of medical reasons.
202 Voskes, Y, ‘No effect without ethics. Reduction of seclusion in psychiatry from a care ethics perspective’,
(Amsterdam: University 2014), p. 15-17.
203 CPT 2012: Report to the Government of the Netherlands on the visit to the Netherlands carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 10 to 21 October 2011, par. 58. Researchboard for Safety, ‘Safety for Immigrants’, (The Hague, 2014), p. 49.
204 Letter from the Clara Wichmann Institute to the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport, (31 May 2016), Position Paper regarding the policy on Integrated obstetrical care, Birth Movement Foundation (17 June 2016).
205 Answers on Kamervragen Arib, Doc. No. 2015Z05961, (2 april 2015), Answer on question of Dik-Faber, question hour House of Representatives, (31 maart 2015), 69-5-1; L. de Kwant, ‘Abortion pill by the Doctor: wanted but not legal, medical contact’ (2 april 2015); E-mail of IGZ to SunPharma (Dutch producer of medical abortion pils) with regard of supplying pharmacies, (24 April 2015).
206 CESCR, General Comment 24, par. 14.
207 The governmental scheme that reimburses providers of medical services to undocumented aliens does not cover the costs for abortion, available at: https://www.zorginstituutnederland.nl/verzekering/onverzekerbare+vreemdelingen
208 Sixth Periodic Report 2016, p. 57
209 ‘Curacao, paradise full of sulfur and nickel’, Newspaper: Trouw (8 August 2016); , ‘Love-hate relationship with the refinery’, Newspaper: Volkskrant (15 September 2015), ‘http://www.volkskrant.nl/buitenland/haat-liefderelatie-met-de-raffinaderij~a4141447/. Indicating protests of the population against the pollution of the refinery by the NOS News, ‘Curacao inhabitants concerned over ‘cancer-inducing’ green stuff’, at: http://nos.nl/artikel/2040318-curacaoenaars-bezorgd-over-kankerverwekkend-groen-spul.html
210 Joint Court of Justice, Vol. ECLI:NL:OGHNAA:2010:BK9395(12 January 2010).
211 House of Representatives 2015-2016, 34300-VI, 20.
212 Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK), ‘Policy letter on ISLA’, 24 May 2016.
213 See information offered by the Government via: https://www.volksgezondheidenzorg.info/onderwerp/fysieke-omgeving/cijfers-context/luchtverontreiniging#node-ziektelast-door-luchtverontreiniging.
214 ‘Friends of the Earth Netherlands challenging State about Air Pollution’, Newspaper: Parool (2 August 2016) http://www.parool.nl/binnenland/milieudefensie-daagt-staat-om-luchtvervuiling~a4350196/; Also see http://www.ggd.amsterdam.nl/gezond-wonen/milieu-buitenshuis/luchtkwaliteit/.
215 Friends of the Earth Netherlands, ‘Dutch State being sued about Air Pollution’, (2 August 2016) https://milieudefensie.nl/luchtkwaliteit/nieuws/dagvaarding-recht-op-gezonde-lucht; ‘Friends of the Earth Netherlands challenging State about Air Pollution’, Newspaper: Parool (2 August 2016), available at: http://www.parool.nl/binnenland/milieudefensie-daagt-staat-om-luchtvervuiling~a4350196/; or Trouw Newspaper: http://www.trouw.nl/tr/nl/4492/Nederland/article/detail/4352693/2016/08/06/Milieudefensie-tast-juridische-grenzen-af.dhtml; and see WHO Guidelines (2005) here: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg/en/
216 CESCR, General Comment 14 (2000) par. 4 and 11.
217 WHO, ‘Air quality guidelines – global update 2005’. (2005), available at: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg/en/ (hereafter: WHO Air Quality Guidelines (2005))
218 CESCR, General Comment no. 14 (2000), par. 15.
219 Idem, par. 34 and 14
220 Idem, par. 51.
221 WHO Air Quality Guidelines (2005), here: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg/en/.
222 Friends of the Earth Netherlands, ‘Dutch State being sued about Air Pollution’, (2 August 2016) https://milieudefensie.nl/luchtkwaliteit/nieuws/dagvaarding-recht-op-gezonde-lucht