Personality = the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intraphysic, physical and social environments.
3 levels of analysis: 1. like all others (human nature)
2. like some others (individual+group differences)
3. like no others (individual uniqueness)
Kloof tussen human nature en group+individual differences, grote theorieen tegenover persoonlijkheidsonderzoek.
Domain of knowledge = a specialty area of science and scholarship in which psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspects of human nature.
Each theoretical perspective within the domains of personality does not capture the whole person.
Focus on 2 elements: -the theories in the domains
-the empirical research within the domains
-Dispositional Domain: personality is influences by traits the person is born with or develops, the ways in which individuals differ from one another
-Biological Domain: humans are collections of biological systems, and these systems provide the building blocks for behavior, thought and emotion. 3 areas: genetics, psycholphysiology and evolution.
-Intrapsychic Domain: deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside the realm of conscious awareness (Freud).
-Cognitive-Experiental Domain: focuses on congnition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs and desires about oneself and others. The self and self-concept, self-view.
-Social and Cultural Domain: personality is influanced by social, cultural and gendered poitions in the world. Different cultures may bring out different facets of our personalities in manifest behaviour.
-Adjustment Domain: refers to the fact that personlaity plays a key role in how we cope, adapt and adjust to events in our daily life. Certain personality features are related to poor adjustment and have been designated as personality disorders.
A good theory (vb zie blz22): -provides a guide for researchers
-organizes known findings
Differences between theories and beliefs: theories have reliable evidence, is scientific and has systematic observations. Theories are tested by systematic observations that can be repeated by others and that yield similar conclusions.
5 Scientific standards for evaluating personality theories:
- comprehensiveness: does the theory do a godd job of explaining all of the facts and observations within its domain?
- heuristic value: does the theory provide a guide to important new discoveries about personality that were not known before?
- testability: does the theory render precise enough predictions that personality psychologists can test them empirically? The testability of a theory rests with the precision of its predictions.
- parsimony: does the theory contain few premises and assumptions (parsimony) or many (lack of parsimony)? It is not that simple theories are always better.
- compatibility and integration across domains and levels
4 sources of Personality Data:
- Self-Report Data (S-Data) the information a person reveals, based on some procedure, such as questionnaire or an interview. Most common method. Reasons: individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else. Unstructured is open ended, ‘tell me about...’ (TST). Structured is answer true/false.
- Observer-Report Data (O-Data) the impressions and evaluations others make of whom they come into contact with. Advantages are that observers may have acces to information not attainable through other sources, and multiple observers can be used to acces each individual. Inter-rater reliability = the use of multiple observers allows investigators to evaluate the degree of consensus among observers. 2 Strategies for selecting observers: who know the person (better position to observe the natural behaviour & multiple social personalities can be assessed) & who doesn’t know the person. Naturalistic observation artificial observation.
- Test Data (T-Data) participants are placed in a standardized testing situation, with the idea to see if different people react differently to an identical situation. More controlled testing conditions then with S-Data. 3 Problems: 1. participants might try to guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior or responses in an effort to create a specific impression of themselves, 2. the difficulty in verifying that the research participants define the testing situation in the same manner as the experimenter, 3. the influence of the researcher. T-Data is a valuable and irreplaceable source of personality information. It enables experimenters to test specific hypotheses by exerting control over the variables that are presumed to have causal influence. Also physiological data: fMRI benefit because the participants can’t fake responses, and projective techniques, bv Rorschach.
- Life-Outcome Data (L-Data) refers to information that can be, gleaned from the events, activities and outcomes in a persons life that are available to public scrunity, public records (divorces), bv internetpatterns, creditcard histories etc.
S-Data + O-Data to predict L-Data
Issues in Personality Assessment:
- links among various data sources: when using two or more data sources within a single personality study, how close do they correspond. Lack of agreement does not necessarily signify an error of measurement.
- the fallibility of personality measurement = how the use of multiple data sources can correct some of the problems associated with single data sources.
3 Standards to evaluate personality measures:
- Reliability: correlate with the true leverl, to see if it is:
1. repeated measurement (test-retest reliability=met vaak dezelfde uitkomst)
2. examine the relationships among the items themselves at a single point in time (internal consistency reliability = als de items in een test allemaal goed correleren)
3. obtain measurements from multiple observers (inter-rater reliability = obtain measurements from multiple observers)
1. face-validity = whether the test, on the surface, appears to measure what it is supposed to measure
2. predictive validity/criterion validity = whether the test predicts criteria external to the test, high predictive validity when a scale succesfully predict what it should predict
3. convergent validity = whether a test correlates with other measures that it should correlate with
4. discriminant validity = refers to what a measure should NOT correlate with (a test does not correlate with what it is nog supposed to)
5. construct validity = a combination of all the others, based on the notion that personality variables are theoretical constructs.
- Generalizability = the degree to which the measure retains its validity across various contexts, bv is an intelligencetest equally valid for men and women? Generalizibility is critical in determining the degree to which the measure can be applied across these social and cultural contexts.
Research designs in personality:
- Experimental methods (relationships among variables) = typically used to determine causality; whether one variable influences anohter variable (variable = equality that differs, or can take different values for different people). To establish the influence of one variable on another: 1. manipulation, 2. ensuring that participants in each experimental condition are equivalent to each other at the beginning of the study. If the experiment has manipulation between groups then the random assigment of participants to experimental groups is a procedure that helps ensure tahat all groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study. Equivalence can be obtained by counterbalancing the order of the conditions critical because there might be order effects as a consequence of being exposed to one condition first.
- Correlational studies = a statistical procedure is used for determining whether or not there is a relationship between two variables, Correlational designs typically try to determine what goes with wat in nature, rather than attempting to manipulate or influence the phenomenon under observation. Correlation coefficients (dus in real-life), from -1.00 tot +1.00. Two reasons why correlations can never prove causality: 1. directionality problem (je weet nooit wat het gevolg van wat is), 2. third variable problem (een 3e, onbekende, variabel die mee kan spelen)
- Case studies = bv examining the life of one person in-depth; researcher scan find out about personality in great detail, gives insights into personality that can be used to formulate a more general theory to be tested on a larger population. The assessment techniques are limited only by the imagination of the investigator limitations: findings based on one individual can not be generalized to other people dus: case studies are most often used as a source of hypotheses and as a means to illustrate a principle by bringing it to life.
Concerns those aspects of personality, that are stable over time, relatively consistent over situations, and make people different from each other. The term disposition is used because it refers to an inherent tendency to behave in a specific way or a predilection to do this rather than that (vragen zie p59). Traits are seen as the building blocks of personality. Personality is viewed as being built out of a set of common traits. The most popular taxonomy of personality traits is The Big Five, has 5 fundamental traits: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience.
In this domain there is a unique conception of how people change yet remain stable at time. Trait levels can stay the same overtime, yet the behaviors that manifest those traits change as the person ages.
3 Fundamental questions guide those who study personality traits:
- how should we conceptualize traits?
- how can we identify which traits are the most important traits from among the 1000 of ways in which individuals differ (how individuals differ)
- how can we formulate a comprehensive taxonomy of traits – a system that includes within it all of the major traits of personality?
Those who view traits do not prejudge the cause of someones behavior.
Act Frequency: traits are categories of acts. The Act Frequence Approach to traits involves 3 key elements:
- Act Nomination which acts belong in which trait categories
- Prototypicality Judgement identifying which acts are most central to, or prototypical of, eacht trait category (welke t meest stereotyperend zijn)
- Recording of Act Performance securing information on the actual performance of individuals in their daily lives
Critique: the technical implementation of the approach (kijkt bv niet naar de context) & seems applicable to overt actions, but what about failujres to act and covert acts that are not directly observable.
But: it has been especially helpful in making explicit the behavioral phenomena to which most trait terms refer. It is helpful in identifying behavioral regularities and it is helpful in exploring the meaning of some traits that have proven difficult to study.
Two major formulations of traits:
- traits as internal causal properties of persons that affect over behavior
- traits as descriptive summaries of overt behavior, with the causes of those trends in conduct to be determined subsequently
Three fundamental approaches in the dispositional domain to identify important traits:
- Lexical Approach = all important individual differences have become encoded within the natural languange (is lexical hypothesis). Lexical approach has 2 criteria for identifying important traits: synonym frequence & cross-cultural universality.
- Statistical Approach = consists of having a large number of people rate themselves on the items, then using a statistical procedure to identify groups or clusters of items. Goal is to identify the major dimensions, or ‘coordinates’ of the personality map (tabel met .01-.99 (facot loading), hoe groot de rol is van die factor in dat cluster) = facotr analysis. Cluster = groups of items that covary, go together, but tend not to covary with other groups of items. Can ben useful in reducing the large array of diverse personality traits into a smaller and more useful st of underlying factors. Critique: you get out of it only what you put into it, als je een belangrijke factor weglaat, komt die ook niet naar boven.
- Theoretical Approach = dictates in high specific manner which variables are important to measure.
Many researchers use a combination of this three.
Taxonomies of Personality:
- Eysenck’s hierarchical model of personality PEN: psychotism, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-emotional stability
- Cattell’s 16 personality factor system: 16 basic traits, factor A,B,C,etc... Interpersonal traits = traits that refer to what people do to and with eachother
- Circumplex Taxonomies of Personality: provides an explicit definition of interpersonal behavior, specifies the relationships between each trait and every other trait within the model. 3 Types of relationships specified in the model: - adjacency =how close the traits are to each other in the circle
- bipolarity = located at opposite sides of the circle and negatively correlate with eachothter
- orthogonality = traits that are perpendicular to eachother on the model, are entirely unrelated to eachother
- Five Factor Model (Big Five): zie boven, critique: it is the vijf factors fail to capture the underlying causal personality processes that researchers are really interested in
3 Important assumptions about personality traits:
- Meaningful Differences between Individuals: trait psychology has sometimes been called differential psychology in the interest of distinguishing this field from other branches of personality psychology. People differ from eachother in the amounts of the various traits. Some belief in a few key personality traits, which when you combine them form other traits according to trait psychologists, every personality, no matter how complex or unusual the product of a particular combinations of a few basic and primary traits is.
- Consistancy over Time: personality is consistent, attitudes interests and opinions not consistent. A trait might be consistent, the way it manifests itself in actual behavior might change substantially. But traits can change by age; if all people show a decrease in a particular trait, at the same rate over time, they might still maintain the same rank order relative to each other.
- Consistency across Situations: situationism = situational differences that determine behavior
Person-Situation Interaction: behavior is a funcion of personality & situation (B=F(PxS)); if the situation is...., if the personality is...., then this behavior is the result.
Situational specifity a person acts in a specific away under particular circumstances. Strong situation = situations in which nearly everyone react in similar ways (death of a pet).
Drie manieren hoe persoon en situatie interacteren:
1. Situational selection = the tendency to choose the situations in which one finds oneself, people select situations in which they find themselves.
2. Manipulation = the various means by which people influence the behavior of others.
3. Aggregatoin = the process of adding up, or averaging several single observations, resulting in a better (more reliable) measure of a personality trait than a single observation of behavior. (Meerdere gegevens over langer tijdsverloop).
Personality traits are average tendencies to behave in certain ways.
Important measurement issues in trait research:
- Carelessness: niet gemotiveerd om goed of eerlijk in te vullen, niet goed lezen. Detecting problems: use an infrequency scale = vragen als ik geloof niet dat hout brandt, antwoord iedereen met False, als iemand 2 of meer van zulke vragen met True beantwoord is het niet betrouwbaar.
- Faking on Questionnaires: fake good to appear better. False negative; a truthful person was faking and the psychologist rejects that persons data. False positive; a person who was faking was actually telling the truth.
- Response sets: the tendency of some people to respond to the questions on a basis that is unrelated to the question content, ook: noncontent responding.
Acquiescence: simply agree with the questionnaire items, oplossing: reverse-scoring.
Extreme responding: avoid the middle part of response(‘beetje’).
Social desirability: act to be socially attractive or likable. 2 Views:
- social desirability as distortion, should be eliminated, not faking or lying, not consciously
- social desirability as a valid part of other desirable personality traits
To minimize the effects of socially desirable responding:
- remove it statistically from the other questionnaire responses
- developing questionnaires that are less susceptible to this type of responding
- use a forced-choice questionnaire, keuzes even ‘sociaal aantrekkelijk’
Personality traits may predict who is likely to do well in a particular job.
Barnum statements = generalities, statements that could apply to anyone (horoscopen). Not the test is fault, but a persons interpretation.
The Intrapsychic Domain
Motives = internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects or goals. A motive is often caused by a deficity, a lack of something. Motives arfe based on needs (states of tension within a person). Motive psychologists believe that fantasies, free associations and responses to projective techniques reveal the unconscios motivation behind many thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The believe:
- people differ from antoher in the type and strenght of their motives
- these differences are measurable
- these differences cause or are associated with important life outcomes, such as business success
- differences between people in the relative amounts of various motives are stable over time
- motives may provide one answer to the question ‘why do people do what they do?’
2 Types of motivations:
- Implicit motivation = are based on needs (nAch, nPow, nInt), they are measured in fantasy based measures (TAT). Talking abouts other people because it reflects their unconscious desires and aspirations, their unspoken needs and wants.
- Self-attributed motivations = reflects primarily a person’s self-awareness of his or her own conscious motives or normative beliefs about desirbale goals and modes of conduct. Awareness.
Needs = potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances. It stands fot he fact that a certain trend is apt to reccur. Each need is associated with 1. a specific desire or attention, 2. a particular set of emotions, 3. specification tendencies. Each person has a unique hierarchy of needs, each need interacts with the various other needs within each person, this interaction is what makes the concept of motive dynamic ( the mutual influence of forces with a person).
Apperception is the act of interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what is going on in a situation. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a formal technique for assesing the insight that needs and motives influence how we perceive the world; exists of a set of black-and-white drawings which are amiguous. Predicts long-term. TAT has poor internal reliability.
Multi-Motive Grid = newer form of assessing motives, combines TAT and self-report questionnaire.
The Big Three Motives:
- Need for Achievement (nAch) = the desire to do better, to be succesful, the obtain satisfaction from accomplishing a task: - they prefer activities that provide some challenge
- the enjoy tasks in which they are personally responsible for the outcome
- they prefer tasks for which feedback on their performance is available
Independence training: parenting practices to promote high achievement in their children
- Need for Power (nPow)= the desire to have an impact on others. Responsibility training.
- Need for Intimacy (nInt) = the desire for warm and fulfilling relationships with others/preference for warm, close and communicative interaction with others. They spend more time during the day thinking relationships, report more pleasant emotions when they are around other people, they smile, laugh and make more eye-contact, and they start up conversations more frequently and write more letters.
- approach to motivation: conscious awareness fo needs, choice and personal responsibility
- the human need for growth and the realization of one’s full potential
- self-actualization: the process of becoming more and more what one idiosycratically is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming, develop one’s potential
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, he defines needs primarily by their goals. More basic needs found toward the bottom of the hierarchyand the self-actualization need at the top. 1. Physiological, 2. Safety, 3. Belongingness, 4. Esteem (from others and yourself), 5. Self-actualization.
Characteristics of self-actualizers: p361
Maslow focused on the characteristics of self-actualizers, Rogers focused on the ways to foster and attain self-actualization. Humanism: people are good and positive.
Roger: fully functioning person person who is on his way toward self-actualization, not to be self-actualized yet, but not blocked toward his goal.
All children are born wanting to be loved and accpeted by their parents and others positive regard. Conditions of worth; the requirements set forth by parents or significant others for earning their positive regarde; earned by meeting certain conditions = conditional positive regard
Rogers: to avoid that people don’t choose for themselves but only to make others happy, they should have unconditional positive regard ipv conditional positive regard. Persons who get unconditional positive regard begin to take on the characteristics of a fully functinoing person and begin to actualize the selves that they were meant to be.
Anxiety is, according to Rogers, the result of having an experience that does not fit with one’s selfconception; people need to defend themselves against anxiety, to reduce the descrepancy between one’s self-concept and one’s experiences. To alter the experience by using a defense mechanism distortion, the modify their experience rather than their self-image.
Emotional intelligence (5 components):
- the ability to know one’s own emotions
- the ability to regulate those emotions
- the ability to motivate oneself
- the ability to know how others are feeling
- the ability to influence how others are feeling
EQ may be more important for self-actualizers than IQ, because out of touch with their emotions.
Rogers clent-centered therapy = therapist makes no attempt to change the client directly, but creates the right conditions for the client to change himselve. 3 Core conditions:
- atmosphere of genuine acceptance on the part of the therapist
- therapist must express unconditional positive regard for the client
- empathic understanding (the feelings as if they were the therapist’s own)
empathy = understanding the others from his or her point of view
Emphasizes an understanding of people’s perceptions, thoughts, desires and toher conscious experiences.
Cognitive approaches; focuses on the differences in how people think.
Personalizing cognition = recall a similar event from one’s own life.
Objecting cognition = recall objective facts about something.
Cognition = awareness and thinking, specific mental acts such as perceiving, attending to, interpreting, remembering, believing and anticipation; add up to information processing.
Levels of congnition:
- perception = the process of imposing order on the informatin our sense organs take in
- interpretation = making the sense of, or explaining of, various events in the world
- conscious goals = the standards that people develop for evaluating themselves and others
Witkin’s Rod and Frame Test (RFT) to investigate individual differences, whether someone is fiel-dependent (visual) of field-independent (their own sensations). Field-indepent people are better at ignoring distracting information and focusing on the important details of the even. Reducer-augmenter theory: Petrie, people with low pain tolerance have a nervoussystem that augments the subjective impact of sensorey cues, with high tolerance which reduces the effects of sensory stimulation. Kinesthetic figural after effect (KFA): soort blokken, als de wijdte wordt overschat zijn het ‘augmenters’, als de wijdte wordt onderschat zijn het ‘reducers’.
Personality revealed through Interpretation:
2 kinds of interpretation: - about responsibility
- about expectations for the future
Kelly: people in efforts to understand, predict, and control the events in their lives, when people don’t know why something happened they experience greater distress that if they had an explanation.
Construct = a summerize of a set of observatins and conveys the meaning of those observations. Scientist employ constructs to interpret observatins. We use constructs all the time to give meaning to, or to interpret, our social world. Personal constructs = the constructs a person routinely uses to interpret and predict eventes. People develope characteristic sets of constructs that they frequently use in interpreting the world.
Post-modernism = an intellectual position grounded in the notion that reality is constructed, every person and certainly every culture has a versin of reality that is unique, and no single version of realtiy is any more privileged then another.
Commonality corollay = if two people have similar construct systems, they would be psychologically similar.
Sociality corollary = how the one construes the world and which main personal constructs the person uses.
Locus of control = whether people tend to locate that responsibility internally, within themseles, or externally, in fate, luck or chance. Describes a person’s perception of responsibility for the events in his or her life. Generalized expectancies = a person’s expectations for reinforcement held across a variety of situations. When people encounter a new situation, they base their expectancies about what will happen on their generalized expectancies about whether they have the abiulities to influence events. External locus of control = outside someone, cannot control. Internal locus of control = inside, can control.
Another individual difference in how people interpret the world: learned helplessness (accepteren dat je er niets aan kunt doen en dus eronder lijden), moeten ze niet accepteren maar vanuit een outside perspective bekijken, en een nieuwe bron van optimisme.
Causal attribution a person’s explanation of the cause of an event.
Explanatory style: tendencies some people have to frequently use certain explanations for the causes of events; external internal
pessimistic explanatory style: internal, stable, global
optimistic explanatory style: external, temporary, specific
Personality revealed through Goals:
What a person want to happen. Personal project = a set of relevant actions intended to achieve a goal that a person has selected. People have traits, people do lifetasks. Lifetasks = the personal versions of culturally mandated goals. The goals that people work on in their day-to-day lives. Strategies = characteristic ways that people respond to the challenges of making progress on a particular life task.
Social constraint = one of Cantor’s strategies for solving the problem of making friends and overcoming feelings of social isolation and ineptitude.
Defensive pessimism = expect the worst in order to avoid feeling anxious and disappointed, they prepare the failure a head of time, low expectations for their performance and often focus on worst case outcomes.
Outcome focused strategy = a person turns every situatin into opportunities to focus on academic tasks.