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Enkel finger vinger



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61. Parts of the Body

ankle

enkel

finger

vinger

nail

nagel

arm

arm

flesh

vlees (n)

neck

hals / nek

back

rug

foot

voet

nerve

zenuw

beard

baard

forehead

voorhoofd (n)

pain

pijn

belly

buik

gum

tandvlees (n)

nose

neus

bladder

blaas

hair

haar (n)

palm

handpalm

blood

bloed (n)

hand

hand

rib

rib

body

lichaam (n)

head

hoofd (n)

shin

scheen

bone

bot / been (n)

headache

hoofdpijn

shoulder

schouder

brain

hersenen (pl.)

health

gezondheid

skeleton

skelet / geraamte

breath

adem

heart

hart (n)

skin

huid

calf

kuit

heel

hiel

skull

schedel

cheek

wang

hip

heup

sole

voetzool

chest

borst

intestines

ingewanden (pl.)

spine

ruggengraat

chin

kin

jaw

kaak

stomach

maag

cold

verkoudheid

kidney

nier

tear

traan

cough

hoest

knee

knie

thigh

dij

ear

oor (n)

leg

been (n)

throat

keel

elbow

elleboog

lip

lip

thumb

duim

eye

oog (n)

liver

lever

toe

teen

eyebrow

wenkbrauw

lung

long

tongue

tong

eyelid

ooglid (n)

moustache

snor

tooth

tand

face

gezicht (n)

mouth

mond

wound

wond

fever

koorts

muscle

spier

wrist

pols

62. Relative Pronouns

Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns - words that correspond to who, whom, that and which in English.  These may be omitted in English, but must be included in Dutch.  The relative pronoun is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to.  The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well as with subordinate clauses.  Die and dat are the relative pronouns in Dutch; die refers to people, singular common nouns and all plural nouns, whereas dat refers to singular neuter nouns.

Kent u de man die daar op de hoek staat?  Do you know the man who is standing there on the corner?
Dat is het boek dat ik las.  That is the book (that) I read.
Hier is de jurk die ik gisteren gekocht heb.  Here is the dress (which) I bought yesterday.

Die is replaced by wie when the clause refers to people and is preceded by a preposition. In addition, whoever is translated as wie.

De jongen met wie ik praatte heet Piet.  The boy with whom I spoke is called Peter.

No relative pronoun is used when the clause refers to things and is preceded by a preposition.  In this case, waar- and the preposition are used instead.  In some cases, waar- and a preposition can also replace the relative pronoun when referring to people.



Dat zijn mensen waarop je rekenen kunt.  They are people upon whom you can count. (They are people you can count on.)

Wat replaces dat when the pronoun refers to the words alles (everything), iets (something), niets (nothing); to the superlative form of an adjective used as a noun; to the whole preceding clause.  It is also used when there is no antecedent (no preceding noun/pronoun to refer to.)

Dat is alles wat ik heb.  That is everything that I have.
Zij komt altijd te laat, wat mij ergert.  She always comes late, which annoys me.

63. Uses of Er

1. Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people.  However, when you need to refer to a thing, a compound using er- plus the preposition (either written as one word, or separated by adverbial expression) is used. Daar (that) and hier (this) can also replace er when it is not written as one word.

De kinderen spelen vaak ermee.  The children often play with it.
De kinderen spelen er vaak mee. The children often play with it.
Di kinderen spelen daar/hier vaak mee. The children often play with that/this.

2. Er is used when talking about a quantity or an amount.  It is translated as "of it" or "of them," though these expressions are not always used in English.



Ik heb er genoeg gehad.  I've had enough (of it.)
Hoeveel poesjes heb je?  Ik heb er twee.  How many kittens do you have?  I have two (of them.)

3. In an unstressed position, er means there (an adverb of place).  It is replaced by daar in stressed positions (such as the beginning of a sentence.)

4. Er can introduce sentences with an indefinite subject.  In this case, er functions as there as a subject, as in "there is/are."

64. Animals



animal

dier (n)

dog

hond

horse

paard (n)

salmon

zalm

ant

mier

donkey

ezel

insect

insekt

scale

schub

badger

das

duck

eend

kitten

katje / poesje (n)

(sea) gull

(zee)meeuw

bat

vleermuis

eagle

arend

lamb

lam (n)

seal 

zeehond

beak

bek

eel

aal

lion

leeuw

shark

haai

bear

beer

elephant

olifant

lobster

kreeft

sheep

schaap (n)

bee

bij

feather

veer

louse

luis

shrimp

garnaal

beetle

tor

fin

vin

mackerel

makreel

snail

slak

bird

vogel

fish

vis

mole

mol

snake

slang

blackbird

merel

flea

vlo

monkey

aap

sparrow

mus

bull

stier

fly

vlieg

mosquito

muskiet

spider

spin

butterfly

vlinder

fox

vos

moth

mot

squirrel

eekhoorn

calf

kalf (n)

frog

kikker

mouse

muis

stork

ooievaar

carp

karper

fur

vacht / pels

octopus

octopus

swallow

zwaluw

cat

kat / poes

gill

kieuw

ostrich

struisvogel

tail

staart

caterpillar

rups

giraffe

giraffe

owl

uil

tiger

tijger

chicken

kip

goat

geit

ox

os

toad

pad

chimpanzee

chimpansee

goose

gans

oyster

oester

trout

forel

claw

klauw

gorilla

gorilla

parrot

papegaai

turkey

kalkoen

cockroach

kakkerlak

grasshopper

sprinkhaan

partridge

patrijs

wasp

wesp

cod

kabeljauw

hare

haas

paw

poot

weasel

wezel

cow

koe

hen

kip / hen

pig

varken

whale

walvis

crab

krab

heron

reiger

pigeon

duif

wing

vleugel

crayfish

rivierkreeft

herring

haring

rabbit

konijn (n)

wolf

wolf

crow

kraai

hoof

hoef

rat

rat

worm

worm

deer

hert

horn

hoorn

rooster

haan

zebra

zebra

65. Infinitive Constructions

Some verbs require a preposition before an infinitive in Dutch, while others do not. This is true in English as well; e.g. I want to leave vs. I can read. Verbs that do not require te before an infinitive include: modal verbs, blijven, laten, zullen, zien (to see), horen (to hear), voelen (to feel), komen, gaan, vinden (to find), leren (to teach), and helpen.

Ik kan komen. I can come.
Het zal morgen regenen. It will rain tomorrow.
Zij gaat iedere dag zwemmen. She goes swimming everyday.

The preposition used in Dutch is te, although the om... te construction can also be used. Verbs that use only te before an infinitive include: zitten, staan, liggen, lopen (to walk), beginnen, proberen (to try), durven (to dare), hoeven (to need), weten. And after these prepositions, te is used before an infinitive: zonder (without), in plaats van (instead of), and door (by.) When using om...te, all adjectives, adverbs, objects, and expressions of time, manner and place are placed between om and te. Om... te is always used when the infinitive occurs at the beginning of the sentence, and when the infinitive refers to a preceding noun.



Hij stond op de bus te wachten. He stood waiting for the bus.
Het begint te regenen. It's beginning to rain.
Ik zei het zonder te denken. I said it without thinking.
Het is erg moeilijk om te doen. It is very difficult to do.
Hoeveel kost het om hier te parkeren? How much is it to park here?
Het is een interessant programma om naar te kijken. It is an interesting program to watch.

English infinitives that follow an object are translated into clauses using conjunctions in Dutch.



Zij verwacht dat ik kom. She is expecting me to come. (Literally: She expects that I come.)

66. Past Perfect Tense

  The past perfect tense corresponds to the perfect tense, but the action occurred in the past before another action occurred in the past.  In English, it translates to "had" instead of "have" before the past participle.  To form this tense, simply use the simple past of hebben or zijn (whichever auxiliary the verb used in the present perfect tense) and the past participle.

Zij had de boeken niet gevonden. She had not found the books.
Jullie hadden in Paris gestudeerd. You had studied in Paris.

67. Conditional

The conditional mood expresses doubt or uncertainty. In English, "would + infinitive" is used for the present conditional and "would have + past participle" is used for the past conditional. In Dutch, zou/zouden + infinitive is used for the present conditional, and zou/zouden + past participle + infinitive of hebben or zijn is used for the past conditional. (Zou and zouden are the singular and plural past tense forms of zullen.)

Ik zou graag thuis blijven. I would like to stay home.
Als ik jou was, zou ik dat huis niet kopen. If I were you, I would not buy that house.
Ik zou graag thuis gebleven zijn. I would have liked to stay home.

68. Diminutives

Diminutives are forms of a word that show smallness or endearment and are much more common in Dutch (especially spoken Dutch) than in English. All diminutives in Dutch are formed by adding -je to the noun, and all are neuter nouns and form the plural by adding -s.

kindje little child
neusje little nose
schaapje little sheep

Nouns endings in a vowel, y, w or j; nouns that contain a long vowel or diphthong followed by r, l, or n; and nouns ending in unstressed -er, -el, and -en add -tje to form the diminutive.



eitje little egg
beentje little leg
dekentje little blanket

Nouns containing a short vowel followed by r, l, n, m, or ng add -etje.



balletje little ball
stemmetje little voice

Nouns ending in unstressed -ing drop the final -g and add -kje.



verrassinkje little surprise

Nouns ending in -m add -pje (unless m is preceded by short stressed vowel.)



bezempje little broom

69. Present Participle

The present participle is made by adding -d (or sometimes -de) to the infinitive of a Dutch verb. Present participles are not used as frequently in Dutch as in English. They are used mainly when another action takes place within the specific period of time we are talking about. So, every example sentence is about two actions that take place at the same time.

zingen to sing
Ze liep zingend naar huis. She walked home singing.

lopen to walk
Kun jij lopend lezen? Can you read while walking?

fluisteren to whisper
Hij zei fluisterend dat hij eerder weg wilde. He said whispering that he wanted to leave earlier.

Most of the time an English present participle is not translated by a Dutch present participle. Usually, the Dutch simple present tense is used instead. The sentence below is an example of this.



Ze leest een boek. She is reading a book.

70. Passive Voice

When the subject of the sentence does something, the sentence is in the active voice. If something happens to that person, we use the passive voice.

Replacing the auxiliary verb hebben (to have) by zijn (to be) or worden (to become, to be from this moment on), very often results in the passive voice.

The verb vinden (to find) is in the active voice:
Ik heb gevonden. I have found.
Ik had gevonden. I had found.

And in the passive voice:


Ik ben gevonden. I am found
Ik ben gevonden. I have been found.
Ik was gevonden. I was found.
Ik was gevonden. I had been found.
Ik word gevonden. I am found (right now).

Suppose that Peter finds you.


Ik ben door Peter gevonden. I am found by Peter.
Ik was door Peter gevonden. I was found by Peter.
Ik word door Peter gevonden. I am found by Peter (right now).
Ik word door Peter gevonden. I will be found by Peter.

"Ik word door Peter gevonden." in the present perfect has about the same meaning as "Peter vindt mij." in the simple present.


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