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EXTRA ENGLISH

Table of Contents



Lesson one: Present Tense 3

Lesson two: Past tense 4

Lesson three: Future tense 10

Lesson four: Present Perfect 17

Lesson five: Past Perfect/Future Perfect 22

Lesson six: Mixed tenses/Word Order 28

Lesson seven: Passive Voice 1 34

Lesson eight: Passive Voice 2 40

Lesson nine: Recap! 47

Appendix: 49



LESSON 1

PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PRESENT SIMPLE

Vorm: ww+(e)(s)

Gebruik:

  • om aan te geven dat iets een gewoonte is

  • om aan te geven dat iets een feit is

  • als het niet belangrijk is hoe lang iets duurt. (ook wel general statement genoemd)

Signaalwoorden: always, every week, never, usually, generally etc

Voorbeeldzinnen:

He always runs 3 miles before going to work.

The sun rises in the east. (fact)

Ontkennende/vragende zinnen

Present Simple Vragend & Ontkennend

Bij vragende en ontkennende zinnen moet je het hulpwerkwoord 'DO' of 'DOES' bij het hele werkwoord zetten:
b.v. he doesn't know; does Susan know?
they don't swim; do the boys swim?

Wanneer gebruik je ‘do’ en wanneer gebruik je ‘does’?



  • SHIT-regel: bij She He IT gebruik je ‘does’.



PRESENT CONTINUOUS (-ing vorm)

Vorm: am – is – are + ww+ing

NOW
Gebruik:

  • om aan te geven dat iets nu aan de gang is



  • om aan te geven dat je iets van plan bent / dat iets op de planning staat (vaak staat er aangegeven op welk moment in de toekomst je iets gaat doen)

  • om irritatie aan te geven. (signaalwoord: always – gebruikt voor extra nadruk)


Signaalwoorden: now, at the moment, right now, nowadays

Voorbeeld sentences:
I am reading now.
I’m moving to Austria within a year. (plan)
She’s always nagging. (irritatie)

Oefening1: PRESENT SIMPLE Fill in the gaps, using the Present Simple

  1. I________(to be) here now.

  2. He ________ (to need) help right now.

  3. He___________(not + to need) help now.

  4. He _________ (to have) his passport in his hand.

  5. ________you_________ (to have) your passport with you?



Oefening 2: PRESENT CONTINUOUS Fill in the gaps, use present continuous
1. John __________________________ (to read) a book right now.

2. What __________________________ (to do+you) upstairs?

3. Jack and Peter ___________________________(to work) late today.

4. How many other students ____________________________(you + to study) with?

5. This phone ________________________________ (not + to ring).


Oefening 3: Present Simple or Continuous?

Susanne Vega – Tom’s Diner

I am sitting in the morning


At the diner on the corner
I __________________ at the counter
For the man to pour the coffee
And he ______ it only halfway
And before I even argue
He ________________ out the window
At somebody coming in

"It is always nice to see you"


______ the man behind the counter
To the woman who has come in
She _________________ her umbrella
And I look the other way
As they ______________ their hellos
I'm pretending not to see them
Instead I pour the milk

I ______ the paper


There's a story of an actor
Who had died while he was drinking
It was no one I had heard of

And I ____________ to the horoscope


And looking for the funnies
When I _________________ someone watching me and so I raise my head

There's a woman on the outside


Looking inside, Does she see me?
No she ____ not really ____ me
Cause she ______ her own reflection
And I _______________ not to notice
That she's hitching up her skirt

And while she __________________ her stockings, her hair has gotten wet

Oh, this rain it will continue
Through the morning as I __________ To the bells of the cathedral
I _________________ of your voice..

Oefening 4: CHOOSE : PRESENT SIMPLE – PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Onderstreep ook de signaalwoorden!



  1. Grass always __________________ in summer. (to grow)

  2. Listen! What a noise! It seems as if they __________________ each other. (to kill)

  3. My uncles always __________________ fishing on Saturday. (to go)

  4. Snakes __________________ mice. (to eat)

  5. Why __________________ he always __________________ that? It’s such a nuisance. (to do)

  6. She __________________ usually __________________ her keys. (not, to forget)

  7. __________________ he __________________ his homework regularly? (to do)

  8. At the moment they __________________ the house so they can’t help you. (to clean)


Oefening 5: TENSE PRACTISE

Zet alle werkwoorden in deze tekst in de PRESENT. Onderstreep de werkwoorden voordat je begint.

1. Mrs Cable was the richest woman in the city, but she is also a busybody. She always wanted to know what everybody is doing. When she needs something she rings a bell and a servant came. One day a truck stops in front of her house and three men got out. They are carrying a large box. Mrs Cable sees this and told her servant, Sam, to go and see what the men were doing. Sam goes out and spoke to the men but they don't tell him.

2. When he came back Mrs Cable is very angry with him. Next she sent George to find out. He didn't want to go at first and Mrs Cable told him he is afraid.

When he goes out the men ignored him when he said good morning. He tries again but this time the big man hit him in the stomach and he fell on the ground.


  1. Mrs Cable sees all this and came on to the street. The men take her by the arms and put her in the box.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

Oefening 6: PRESENT SIMPLE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS?

Geef aan in welke tijd de zin staat en waarom.


Voorbeeld: She sings well. (Present simple - fact)

  1. She is singing her favourite song. ____________________________________________

  2. Water boils at a 100 degrees Celcius. _________________________________________

  3. Look, it is snowing. ________________________________________________________

  4. He is tasting the soup. _____________________________________________________

  5. She’s always screaming at me. _______________________________________________

  6. I am leaving for the States tomorrow. _________________________________________

  7. I go to work at 9AM every day. _______________________________________________

  8. I love him. ________________________________________________________________



Oefening 7: DO IT YOURSELF

Schrijf twee zinnen voor elke tijd: Present Simple en Present Continuous Tense

Simple:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Continuous:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Oefening 8: EXPLAIN

Leg in je eigen woorden uit wanneer de Present Simple/Present Continuous gebruikt wordt.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LESSON 2

PAST SIMPLE vs PAST CONTINUOUS

PAST SIMPLE

Vorm: ww+ed / 2e rijtje onr. ww

Gebruik:


  • Als je nadruk wilt leggen op het feit dat iets in het verleden is gebeurd.

  • Als de duur van de actie niet belangrijk is.

Signaalwoorden: last week, three years ago, in the Dark Ages, when…

Voorbeeld zinnen:

I was in France last summer. (nadruk op het feit)

I saw a Bentley parked under my window! (duration absent)

No one knew the answer.

He dropped his pen.

I broke my leg.



Ontkennende/vragende zinnen

Om een ontkennende zin of een vraagzin te maken in de Past Simple gebruik je de verleden tijdsvorm van ‘do’; ‘did’ + hele ww.

Voorbeeld: He did not ask me. Did she go to France?
Je krijgt te maken met de zogeheten onregelmatige werkwoorden wanneer je de ‘Past Tense’ gebruikt. Deze vind je in een overzicht in je Core Business boek en tevens in de bijlage achterin deze reader.

PAST CONTINUOUS

Vorm: was/were + ww+ing

Gebruik:


  • Als je de actie in het verleden wilt benadrukken.

  • Als je nadruk wilt leggen op dat iets in het verleden is gebeurd, dat langer duurt. Meestal wordt dan ook het moment waarop de actie heeft plaatsgevonden gegeven.

Signaalwoorden: (when/while +) alle signaalwoorden uit past simple

Voorbeeld zinnen:

An hour ago the book was still lying on the table. (Indicatie van de tijd van de actie is aangegeven. Gelimiteerde duur, het boek ligt er blijkbaar niet meer.)

An hour ago it was raining (nadruk op de actie/regen)

What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?



Oefening 1 : Vul de PAST SIMPLE van de werkwoorden tussen haakjes in.

Last summer, my family and I 1. ____________ (spend) our holidays in Naxos, an amazing island in Greece. The island 2. ____________ (be) very big and there 3. ____________ (be) lots of things to see and do.


We 4. ____________ (stay) at a comfortable bungalow and  5. ____________ (go) swimming every day at the island’s beautiful beaches….. . I  6. ____________ (get) a great suntan!
We also 7. ____________ (try) the local cuisine. There 8. ____________ (be) various traditional tavernas on the island and we 9. ____________ (eat) there every evening!...I 10. ____________ (put) on about 3 kilos during these holidays!
But Naxos is not all about fun. We also 11. ____________ (visit) many interesting sights, like the Archeological Museum and some prehistoric settlements, which I 12. ____________ (find) pretty impressive. I also 13. ____________ (love) the local people. They 14. ____________ (be) very friendly and welcoming!
We 15. ____________ (have) a great time in Naxos and I would really love to go there again some day!

Oefening 2: Kies het juiste werkwoord en zet deze in de PAST SIMPLE

break make drink buy take go ride drive have do



1. Yesterday I ___________________to the movies.  
2. My sister _________________a birthday cake for me last week.  
3. Steve _________________his bicycle to school yesterday.  
4. My friends _________________to Los Angeles two weeks ago.  
5. Elizabeth _________________some flowers to her mother last Saturday.  
6. Kevin _________________his leg while he was playing football.  
7. Last week my aunt _________________a baby.  
8. When we cleaned the yard, we _________________a lot of work.  
9. The child _________________some milk last night.  
10. My teacher _________________some new books last month.

Oefening 3: Zet de werkwoorden tussen haakjes in de PAST CONTINUOUS.

  1. I ___________________ letters all day yesterday. (write)

  2. You ___________________very slow about it. (be)

  3. You ___________________ on the phone for hours yesterday. (talk)

  4. What ______ you ___________________ when I phoned yesterday? (do)

  5. _____ he ___________________ TV when it happened? (watch)

  6. It was a beautiful morning, the sun ___________________ (shine) and the birds ___________________ (sing).

  7. I saw that a huge dog ___________________ (chase) me.


Oefening 4: Kies het juiste antwoord: A of B

  1. We ...... (drive) to Glasgow when we ....... (run) out of petrol.



    1.    drove / were running

    2.   were driving / ran

  2. Brendon ........ (repair) his motorbike when his mother ..... (call) for dinner.



    1.    repaired / was calling

    2.   was repairing / called

  3. Jack ......... (smoke) a cigarette when the headmaster ......... (see) him.



    1.   was smoking / saw

    2.   smoked / was seeing

  4. I ........ (have) a shower when the telephone ....... (ring).



    1.   was having / rang

    2.   had / was ringing

Oefening 5: Omcirkel de juiste vorm.

  1. Tom was very unlucky. It rained / was raining every day during his holidays.

  2. Who was that nice girl you talked / were talking to when I walked / was walking by the pub?

  3. Last weekend Susan fell / was falling and broke/ was breaking her leg.

  4. When I entered / was entering the cafeteria Mary had / was having lunch with Peter.

  5. The sun shone / was shining brightly when I got up / was getting up this morning.

  6. Ann finally told / was telling us the whole story about Peter.

  7. ‘Where were you at 9 a.m. this morning?’ ‘I drove / was driving from Houston to San Diego.’

  8. She failed the test because she didn’t understand/wasn’t understanding the instructions.

  9. He injured his knee while he played / was playing football.

  10. I came to say goodnight yesterday but you slept / were sleeping.

  11. I saw you on the roof this morning! What did you do / were you doing?

  12. We talked / were talking before you interrupted us!


Oefening 6: Zet de werkwoorden tussen haakjes in de juiste vorm.
Young boy discovered 300 km from home.

Police who ___________________ (look) for a lost five-year-old boy eventually ___________________ (find) him the next day. After getting separated from his family in a market, the boy, from Pekanbary in Malaysia, _____________ (go) to the station, ________ (get) on a train, and was discovered in Padang, 300 km away. ‘he ___________________ (be) very calm’, said the boy’s mother. ‘It was us, his family, who ___________________ (worry) all night’.


Traffic jams make Angelenos (A native of Los Angeles) feel at home.
A recent study said that Los Angeles has the worst traffic in the United States. Last year Angelenos _________________ (spend) an average of 136 hours a year stuck in traffic. Only last week a man was arrested while he ________________ (brush) his teeth in the car, and drivers are regularly seen applying make-up and shaving. Police ___________________ (say) that yesterday they ___________________ (stop) a man who ___________________ (drive) while playing on his laptop computer.
Oefening 7: Past Simple or Past Continuous?


  1. Someone ___________________ (steal) my wallet while I ___________________ (not look).

  2. I ___________________ (not know) you ___________________ (be) in town.

  3. We ___________________ (not hear) the burglar because we ___________________ (listen) to music.

  4. I ___________________ (drive) home when I ___________________ (see) a black cat at the side of the road.

  5. Josie ___________________ (meet) Clyde while they ___________________ (ski).

  6. What ________________________ (you / do) when I____________________ (call) you last night?

  7. I ________________________ (sit) in a café when you ________________________ (call).

  8. Susie ________________________ (watch) a film when she___________________ (hear) the noise.


  9. Yesterday I ________________________ (go) to the library, next I ____________________ (have) a swim, later I ______________________ (meet) Julie for a coffee.

  10. We ________________________ (play) tennis when John ____________________ (hurt) his ankle.

  11. He ________________________ (take) a shower when the telephone______________ (ring).

  12. When I ______________________(walk) into the room, everyone_________________ (work).

Oefening 8: Leg uit waarom in de volgende zinnen de past simple/continuous wordt gebruikt.

  1. I went on holiday in The States last summer.

  2. I was just leaving for school when you called me.

  3. I thought Tony Blair was still in town.

  4. She was seeing him for two years.

  5. I had an accident.

  6. I saw him with Shirley at the Revolution bar!

  7. When I came in, he was doing the dishes.

  8. Thomas was actually doing his homework.

LESSON 3


FUTURE TENSE



  • Will + ww = voorspelling, feit, spontane actie (algemeen of neutraal gebruik – zakelijk Engels)

I will talk to you tomorrow.
Stay seated. I will get the door.

  • Will + be + ww + ing = aan de gang op een specifiek moment in de toekomst

I will be working all day tomorrow.

  • To be + going to + ww = voornemen (intentie)

We are going to look into new opportunities.

I am going to read the book this weekend. (intentie – je weet niet zeker of het


ook daadwerkelijk gaat gebeuren)

  • Present continuous = persoonlijke afspraken (afgesproken en gepland)

I am having dinner with him tomorrow.

  • Present simple = Vaststaand volgens schema (roosters en dienstregelingen)

Class starts at 8.30 am tomorrow.

The plane leaves at 10.50.



Oefening 1: LEG UIT

Wat iis het verschil tussen deze twee zinnen?

I will see him tomorrow.

I am seeing him tomorrow.



Oefening 2: Kies de juiste vorm

Choose the right form of the future tense. Underline the signal words which explain why you would choose for this particular form.

- It’s rather hot in here, isn’t it?
- Yes, you’re right. I ______________________(to open) a window.

2. - Are you going to watch TV tonight?


- Yes, I ______________________(to watch) my favourite programme at 9 o’clock.

3. - What _____________________(you / to eat) tonight? What food have you bought?


- I haven’t bought any food.
- Well, why don’t you come to my house? I ____________ (to cook) us something nice to eat.

4. - I’m going into the centre of town tomorrow. I ___________________(to buy) some new clothes.


- Oh, what _______________(you / to get)?
- I ________________(to look) for a T-shirt and some jeans.
- I’d like to go into the centre too. I ____________(to come) with you.

5. - I _______________(to leave) work late tomorrow. There is a meeting at 6 p.m.


- Oh, I didn’t know that. Well, I _____________(to see) you after the meeting.

6. - I ___________(to phone) Tom at 6 o’clock. I promised to phone him this evening.



7. - Are you going to have a holiday in the summer?
- Yes, I _____________(to travel) around Europe with a friend.

Oefening 3: Kies de juiste vorm
Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses,
1. Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us?
Marcus: He (wait) __________________________for us when our train arrives. I am sure he (stand) _______________________on the platform when we pull into the station.
Sandra: And then what?
Marcus: We (pick) __________________________Michele up at work and go out to dinner.
2. Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry (watch) ___________________TV, Sam (make) ___________________drinks, Beth (dance) ________________by herself, and Thad (complain) _____________________about his day at work.
Robin: Maybe, this time they won't be doing the same things.
Ted: I am absolutely positive they (do) ________________the same things; they always do the same things.
3. Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who (wash) _______________all of those?
Jack: I promise I (do) _____________________them when I get home from work.
Florence: Thanks.
Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks of sparkling clean dishes (sit) _______________________in the cabinets.
4. Doug: If you need to contact me next week, I (stay) _________________at the Hoffman Hotel.
Nancy: I (call) _________________you if there are any problems.
Doug: This is the first time I have ever been away from the kids.
Nancy: Don't worry, they (be) _______________________be fine.
5. Samantha: Just think, next week at this time, I (lie) ___________________on a tropical beach in Maui drinking Mai Tais and eating pineapple.
Darren: While you are luxuriating on the beach, I (stress) __________________out over this marketing project. How are you going to enjoy yourself knowing that I am working so hard?
Samantha: I 'll manage somehow.
Darren: You're terrible. Can't you take me with you?
Samantha: No. But I (send) ___________________you a postcard of a beautiful, white sand beach.
Darren: Great, that (make) _____________________me feel much better.

Oefening 4: Onderstreep de woorden die toekomst aangeven en leg uit waarom een bepaalde vorm van de Future wordt gebruikt.

  1. I am going to study hard for my exam. ______________________________________

  2. They will wait for us tomorrow. ______________________________________

  3. The train leaves at 3PM tomorrow. ______________________________________

  4. Remain seated! I’ll (short for I will) go get it! ______________________________________

  5. The earth will be warmer in the future. ______________________________________

  6. Tonight I will be playing tennis. ______________________________________

  7. My sister is getting her nails done tomorrow. ______________________________________


Oefening 5: Zet de werkwoorden in de juiste vorm.

  1. Right now, I am watching TV. Tomorrow at this time, I (watch) ___________________________ TV as well.

  2. Tomorrow after school, I (go) ___________________________ to the beach.

  3. I am going on a dream vacation to Tahiti. While you (do) ___________________________ paperwork and (talk) ___________________________ to annoying customers on the phone, I (lie) ___________________________ on a sunny, tropical beach. Are you jealous?

  4. When you get off the plane, I (wait) ___________________________ for you.

  5. We (hide) ___________________________ when Tony (arrive) ___________________________ at his surprise party. As soon as he opens the door, we (jump) ___________________________ out and (scream) ___________________________ , "Surprise!"

  6. If you need to contact me sometime next week, I (stay) ___________________________ at the Sheraton in San Francisco.

Oefening 6: FUTURE
1. She’s not in today. I think she has come down with the flu. I ________________________(to talk)
to her tomorrow.
2. I can’t come down to see you tomorrow. I ________________ (to meet up) with my mom to do
some shopping.
3. He’s been driving for five hours now. He _______________ (to be) here any minute now.

Oefening 7: Leg je keuzes uit (vorige oefening)

1._________________________________________________________________________________


2._________________________________________________________________________________


3._________________________________________________________________________________

Oefening 8:



  • Will + ww : wordt gebruikt voor ______________________________.

I will talk to you tomorrow. Stay seated. I will get the door.

  • Will + be + ww + ing: wordt gebruikt voor __________________________.

I will be working all day tomorrow.

  • To be + going to + ww: wordt gebruikt voor ___________________________.

We are going to look into new opportunities.

  • Present continuous: wordt gebruikt voor ___________________________.

I am having dinner with him tomorrow.

  • Present simple: wordt alleen gebruikt voor _____________________________.

Our class starts at 8.30am.

REMIX!
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