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Fossiele primaten en co

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Fossiele primaten en co



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fossiele primaten en co

http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.ListAll&friendID=86201380 

VIDEO's http://www.youtube.com/profile?user=TheOtherRDA&view=videos

http://www.wadsworth.com/anthropology_d/templates/stripped_features/primate_evolution/

http://books.google.be/books?id=Ezm1OA_s6isC&dq=Omomys&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0

voorbeeld weergeven <--

Steiper2009Chap74.pdf




http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/8/photos/636/600x600/1/cladogram-dna.jpg?et=x%2cqn1czvnx58bmgoznaqvw&nmid=245423619

Cladogram-DNA.JPG

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/9/photos/636/600x600/143/primate-tree1.jpg?et=bc9pv686f9dujit5htb%2cvg&nmid=405260566

primate_tree1.jpg

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/600x600/103/5142.jpg?et=jhe9qb0r93lbcvllawiqcq&nmid=253732459

Oligopithecus rogeri 5142.jpg

http://www.thenaturalcanvas.com/Mammals/
Oligopithecus rogeri
Oligocene, Oman

Extremely rare 0.25" tooth of a Catarrhine anthropoid primate



http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/8/photos/636/500x500/102/oligopithecus.jpg?et=upwneydfnum0kd94az%2bzca&nmid=253729069

oligopithecus.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/index.html?curid=2735825http://www.hominides.com/html/dossiers/hominoide.html
35 millions d'années, nous sommes à l'oligocène et les premiers singes modernes vont apparaître. Tout d'abord arboricoles, ils vont se développer sur toutes les niches écologiques, investissant également le sol.
Nous connaissons plusieurs représentants des espèces vivant à cette époque : les singes de la région du Fayoum en Egypte et ceux de Taqah (Sultanat d'Oman). 
Si Oligopithecus est le plus ancien (-35 millions d'années) des singes retrouvés au Fayoum, aegyptopithecus est le plus étudié et donc l'un des plus connus ! Tous ces singes ont la particularité d'avoir une boîte crânienne plus volumineuse (par rapport aux Haplorrhiniens) et des orbites orientées vers l'avant. 
http://www.bertsgeschiedenissite.nl/geschiedenis%20aarde/hominoidea3.htm
Het eerste fossiele bewijs van een grote Hominide is waarschijnlijk Oligopithecus (familie Oligopithecinae) uit de onderste, oudste lagen van Fayoem in Egypte. Van dit dier werd slechts een kaak werd gevonden, maar de kenmerken van de tanden bestempelen het dier als een mensaap en niet als aap. 

Tot de Oligopithecinae behoren de Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. De recente vondsten van de Catopithecus in Fayoum wijzen uit dat dit dier geplaatst moet worden aan de "onderkant van de menselijke stamboom". Catapithecus was kleiner dan een kat en leefde in de boomtoppen. Het voedsel dat hij at bestond uit fruit en soms uit insecten. Waarschijnlijk had het dier een lange staart en een aapachtig gezicht als een Klauwaapje (Marmoset). Mogelijk ontwikkelde zich uit dit diertje ter grootte van een eekhoorn alle hogere Primaten, van Gorilla, Chimpansee tot de Mens, 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=PfGiD18nCYY


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aegyptopithecus.JPG

Aegyptopithecus ::OVERVIEW
http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/apes/aegyptopithecus/aegyptopithecus_overview.html

The largest sample of early catarrhines come from the Fayum depression in present-day Egypt. Today this region is arid desert, but during the Oligocene around 34 million years ago, it was a swampy forest with a great density of ancient primates. Aegyptopithecus zeuxis was a small primate, around 6 kg, with essentially apelike teeth, including broad flat incisors, low molars with somewhat bulbous cusps, and sexually dimorphic canines. These dental features are more similar to living apes than to Old World monkeys, but because the distinctive shearing molars of cercopithecoids evolved later, Aegyptopithecus probably represents the ancestral condition for all catarrhines. Unlike living apes, the molar teeth had a broad extra ridge, called a cingulum, surrounding the main cusps, which increased the grinding area of the teeth.

The postcranial skeleton of Aegyptopithecus was basically monkey-like, with short, non-suspensory forelimbs and a tail. The skull had many features found in later hominoids, including strong temporalis muscle attachments, forming a low sagittal crest in most individuals. The two living catarrhine superfamilies, the hominoids and the cercopithecoides, may have diverged before Aegyptopithecus existed or after. Since Aegyptopithecus shows no derived similarities to either group, it may be very similar to the primitive catarrhine lineage that gave rise to both living groups, even if it represents an early hominoid or cercopithecoid.


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Aegyptopithecus

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kZJW4IkO6Ig



Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/500x500/36/pri1-web.jpg?et=%2cs2g2vbdxfqmfb%2ctstokma&nmid=245439337

Pri1_web.jpg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Ht3zuNLUfQI



Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/1/photos/636/600x600/144/a.zeuxis2.jpg?et=c8fy7lyzmjcnojzm3lkbxq&nmid=245423619

A.zeuxis2.JPG

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Aegyptopithecus Zeuxis

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=UrqMVYVDcao



http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ifnvme6zxxc/sbm4a3gmbei/aaaaaaaaar8/bs0tttzdagi/s400/primate+025-aegyptopithecus.jpg

http://bio.sunyorange.edu/updated2/pl%20new/70%20monkeys.htm

Aegyptopithecus zeuxis lived 34-33 million years ago and is considered to be ancestral to both Old World monkeys and apes. It had dental & facial similarities to the later apes Proconsul and Dryopithecus but still maintains some prosimian aspects of the skull not found in any hominoids. Its teeth and jaws were apelike yet it had a tail as in monkeys. There was a large sagittal crest on the top of the skull. It weighed 9-10 pounds, similar to the size of a gibbon. Its limb proportions suggest it lived in the trees. From its brain endocast, it had a small brain but an enlarged visual cortex (Simons, 1995)..

Old World Monkeys and Apes (aka the parvorder Catarrhini)have the same dental formula (2-1-2-3). If you start in the middle of your mouth and count backwards on either side in half-parabola you should find 8 teeth: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 pre-molars and 3 molars. This sets us apart from New World Monkeys who have a dental formula of 2-1-3-3. The more distantly related Strepsirhines (lemurs, galagos, etc.), are differentiated further by the sharp pointy cusps on their teeth, which are very unlike our flat grinding molars and pre-molars. Aegyptopithecus however shares the 2-1-2-3 dental formula, establishing a link between us and our monkey cousins.

Quite remarkably, Aegyptopithecus had a very small brain, even for their size. This has given rise to the idea that the large brains found in both Old World and New World Monkeys evolved independently. Additionally Aegyptopithecus did not have the bony ear tube found in Catarrhines, indicating this trait likely evolved later.

Most Oligocene primates have tooth form and microwear similar to modern fruit-eating primates. The teeth of Aegyptopithecus suggest that there was additional coarse material in the diet.

The face and teeth of Aegyptopithecus are intermediate between that of primitive and advanced primates (Kingdon, 2003). Aegyptopithecus possessed an ethmofrontal sinus which was once thought to be a feature specific of apes (Rossie, 2002).


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/2/photos/636/600x600/76/a.zeuxis.jpg?et=gigdc4lsfobh8t0oeklazw&nmid=245423619

A.zeuxis

http://bio.sunyorange.edu/updated2/pl%20new/70%20monkeys.htm



Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/600x600/6/070514-primate-skulls-02.jpg?et=q3cjztw197%2cczou8pfc3mw&nmid=245423619

aegyptopithecus

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article1790141.ece


Male & female Aegyptheopithecus Zeuxis
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_m6svhskt_fs/rkxyv_0pd4i/aaaaaaaaaay/98rltj0dfhe/s400/sd.jpg
Comparison of female (Left) and male (Right) crania of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, with unassociated mandibles. Female cranium is CGM 85785; male cranium is CGM 40237
http://www.pnas.org/content/104/21/8731.full.pdf+html

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/500x500/4/dn11841-1-400.jpg?et=qq1alevcmnsxcr%2buhrwy6q&nmid=245423619

Aegyptopithecus male& female

http://www.pnas.org/content/104/21/8731.full.pdf+html



Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/1/photos/636/600x600/152/propliopithecus.jpg?et=%2bxope2ud6z52hi30ujysfg&nmid=245423619

Propliopithecus.JPG

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/5/photos/636/500x500/58/pri2-web.jpg?et=1kmeoyro0ppqhgfl72obfw&nmid=245439337

Propliopithecus haeckeli

Propliopithecus had the 2-1-2-3 tooth pattern but its incisors did not project forward as in modern catarrhines. Its premolars were not one-cusped as in apes and its skeleton suggests a leaping lifestyle. Some species may have given rise to Aegyptopithecus. Some feel that Propliopithecus also gave rise to Old World monkeys. Several species are recognized including P. haekeli, P. markgrafi, P. ankeli, and P. chirobates (Simons, 1995; Delson, 1975).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propliopithecus



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pliopithecus.JPG

Who is This?

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pliopithecus vindobonensis .jpg


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/500x500/134/100421102439-large.jpg?et=upu%2cvgbrjpltcgotlprixw&nmid=332254006

Pliopithecus canmatensis

This is the jaw of a male Pliopithecus canmatensis. (Credit: Alba et al.)

1.Alba et al. A New Species of Pliopithecus Gervais, 1849 (Primates: Pliopithecidae) from the Middle Miocene (MN8) of Abocador de Can Mata (els Hostalets de Pierola, Catalonia, Spain. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2009; NA DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21114

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100421102439.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliopithecus


Who is This?

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2010 Spanish fossil primates.JPG

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color_tree_thumb.jpg

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http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/600x600/100/arbrephilohominides.jpg?et=2pkffvccjjhl9wkw24ujuq&nmid=253724287

arbrephilohominides.jpg

http://www.hominides.com/html/dossiers/homme_singe.html



Who is This?


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/1/photos/636/600x600/8/image001.jpg?et=0d6siqtm5sers%2cnriwi9ya&nmid=245423619

image001.jpg

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http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/5/photos/636/600x600/9/404276aa.2.jpg?et=fulbpxzas5uhznlon8eoog&nmid=245423619

Eosimas tallus

Right Eosimas talus (IVPP V11846) from Locality 1, Shanxi Province, China.


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v404/n6775/fig_tab/404276a0_F1.html#figure-title

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/600x600/64/404276ad.2.gif?et=4ubeujnnp2dywxzieo6hhw&nmid=245439337

Eosimas

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v404/n6775/fig_tab/404276a0_F4.html#figure-title


Consensus tree from PAUP analysis.

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/600x600/13/404276ab.2.gif?et=nczlavkyigj5xgg75z3o0w&nmid=245423619

Eosimias

FIGURE 2. Medial talar and calcaneocuboid features.


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v404/n6775/fig_tab/404276a0_F2.html#figure-title

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/500x500/104/eosimias.jpg?et=fx1orrh9oxc%2cjbfcaievma&nmid=253985655

eosimias.jpg

http://blogs.scienceforums.net/evoanthro/files/2009/05/eosimias.jpg

http://blogs.scienceforums.net/evoanthro/2009/05/20/huge-little-adapoid/


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/500x500/10/eosimias.gif?et=gwjm7lwjaqruayyw0fpieq&nmid=245423619

eosimas.gif

Further steps in identifying Eosimias


http://www.athenapub.com/eosimias1.htm

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/500x500/15/monkey.jpg?et=v8ckslhb7vv3obt4murhdq&nmid=245423619

VICTORIAPITHECUS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoriapithecus_macinnesi

20 millions d'années
C'est le début du Miocène (22 à 5,5 millions d'années), on commence à retrouver des fossiles de primates. On peut les séparer en deux lignées bien spécifiques :

1.- les cercopithécoïdés qui forment un petit groupe (ancêtres des babouins et des macaques). Les cercopithécoïdes ou "singe à queue" sont à cette époque, et comparativement au groupe des hominoïdes, un groupe uniquement représenté par deux espèces dont le Victoriapithèque

2.-- les hominoïdes

http://www.hominides.com/html/dossiers/hominoide.html



Who is This?

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VICTORIA

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/1/photos/636/600x600/17/388368at.001.gif?et=a82r54ruhiagbjskvgr35w&nmid=245423619

388368at.001.gif

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VICTORIAPITHECUS

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/1/photos/636/600x600/19/388327aa.eps.2.gif?et=s%2ccizqstdjjzrghww8vknq&nmid=245423619

388327aa.eps.2.gif

Who is This?

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388368ac.tif.2.gif

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/6/photos/636/600x600/138/saadanius-hijaznsis.jpg?et=sn3tlhebpo%2cyzxizcm99wg&nmid=245423619

Saadanius hijaznsis.JPG

http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7304/full/nature09094.html
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7304/fig_tab/nature09094_ft.html
De ontdekking van fossiele resten van een nog onbekende primaatsoort brengt ons dichter bij het precieze tijdstip waarop mensapen (waaronder de mens) en apen (Oude Wereld Apen genoemd) van elkaar weg evolueerden.

In het plateau net boven Mekka in Saoedi-Arabië is een fossiel gevonden van een vroege primaat, dat zowel kenmerken van mensapen en apen heeft. De splitsing van die twee apensoorten uit een gemeenschappelijke voorouder is een mijlpaal in de evolutiegeschiedenis.

Schattingen op basis van het genoom situeren de splitsing rond 35 to 30 miljoen jaar geleden (vroege oligoceen). Dit fossiel dateert echter van 29 tot 28 miljoen jaar terug. Dat is een periode die tot nu toe weinig relevante fossielen opleverde. Wellicht moet de splitsing tussen 29-28 en 24 miljoen jaar geleden worden gesitueerd, veel later dus dan gedacht.

Paleontologen van de University of Michigan beschrijven de deels bewaarde schedel deze week in Nature. De nieuwe primatensoort, Saadanius hijazensis gedoopt, woog ongeveer 15 à 20 kilogram en was gemiddeld van gestalte, wellicht ter grootte van een hedendaagse gibbon. Saadanius heeft niet de geavanceerde sinussen van moderne mensapen en apen (catarrhines genoemd), maar heeft een benig gehoorgang die nog niet volledig ontwikkeld was bij de voorouder van mensaap en aap een paar miljoen jaar eerder.

‘Saadanius staat dichtbij een groep die uiteindelijk tot de mens leidde’, zegt hoofdauteur William Sanders. ‘Als we meer te weten zouden komen over de omstandigheden waarin dit dier leefde, kunnen we ontdekken wat de veranderingen teweegbracht die tot de evolutie van mensapen en later ook mensen leidde.’ (rvb)

De ontdekking van fossiele resten van een nog onbekende primaatsoort brengt ons dichter bij het precieze tijdstip waarop mensapen (waaronder de mens) en apen (Oude Wereld Apen genoemd) van elkaar weg evolueerden.














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IDA

http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.ListAll&friendID=86201380

Echte aap ?( opponneerbare duim )

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=HaQug8l702A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=nPChcIsCHtU


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IDA scans


http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/evolution/hands_and_wrist_of_darwinius_masillae.jpg
http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/evolution/spacer(2).gif

Images of the hands and wrist of Darwinius masillae as taken from, and as explicitly so described in, the report published by the research team on the Public Library of Science web site.

The academic study of Darwinius masillae / Ida fossil discovery has produced many pictures and images in various formats including photographs, diagrams, sketches and x-rays.


One of the pictures, "picture A", seems to be on track to provide Darwinius masillae / Ida with her Defining Icon. This picture of her hands, which seems to show that her fingers articulated quite like our own, seems to particularly capture public interest and attention.

The image is Fig. 9 of the PLoS ONE article, published under the Creative Commons Attribution License; any re-use should cite the authors and journal.





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darwinius-ida-haplorrhine.jpg

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/17/photos/636/600x600/73/ida-2.jpg?et=owwj8961o4vyyza5r7s6xq&nmid=245423619

IDA 2.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/may/19/fossil-ida-at-a-glance

Interactive map of the fossil
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/interactive/2009/may/19/fossil-ida-evolution

Lemuren,bezitten een tandenboog in de vorm van een kam


* Tandenkam /
TOOTHCOMB
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toothcomb
Lemur catta
file:lemur catta toothcomb.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring-tailed_Lemur
*Een fatsoenerings-kam ( klauw) op de tweede teen
/GROOMIN CLAW
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grooming_claw
Varecia variegata
file:varecia variegata foot with toilet-claw.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruffed_lemur

De verticale spatelvorm van de tanden van IDA


en de structuur het sprongbeen( = TALUS /een voetbeentje bij het enkelgewricht )
horen bij de leden van aftakkingen naar onze struik van de primaten.

HUMAN TALUS-BONE



http://www.joint-pain-expert.net/images/talus_bone.jpghttp://tbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:gfcnfownijokfm:http://www.fredhekmat.com/images/dessicans_talus_bone.gif
http://tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:0jfjgvmnakor6m:http://z.about.com/d/foothealth/1/0/s/0/-/-/taluslabelxray.jpgB= Talus bone http://www.eskeletons.org/metadata_static.cfm

RIGHT FOOT of IDA


Figure 11. Right foot of Darwinius masillae, new genus and species.
Photograph (A) and X-ray image (B) show the specimen preserved on plate A (Fig. 1). (C)— explanatory drawing. (D)— drawing of foot of Eulemur mongoz for comparison. Note the large opposable hallux, and absence of a grooming claw on digit II in Darwinius.

The image is Fig. 11 of the PLoS ONE article, published under the Creative Commons Attribution License; any re-use should cite the authors and journal.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723

Jens L. Franzen1,2, Philip D. Gingerich3, Jörg Habersetzer1, Jørn H. Hurum4*, Wighart von Koenigswald5, B. Holly Smith6



http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchobject.action?uri=info%3adoi%2f10.1371%2fjournal.pone.0005723.g011&representation=png_mFigure 11. Right foot of Darwinius masillae, new genus and species.


talus bone of humans and ida

"A tiny bone in her ankle, the talus, is shaped like that of a modern human. It is critical in connecting the leg to the foot and is key for bearing weight. This is crucial in making it possible to walk upright. Its shape is restricted to monkeys, apes and humans. The lemurs and the other prosimians have a bone of a completely different shape."

David Attenborough (2009)

However :

"The steep fibular facet on the talus or astragalus alone is not a synapomorphy for anthropoids because it also occurs in outgroups such as Scandentia, Dermoptera and Plesiadapiformes...Among primates it is, however, a haplorhine apomorphy [35,37], and its presence in Darwinius supports taxonomic and phylogenetic classification with haplorhines rather than strepsirrhines (Table 3)." (Franzen et al blz 17/18)
(Gerdien De Jong ) = "But it is not a apomorhy either , but possibly a plesiomorphy ( because it is also occuring in outgroups )....so , a sloping fibular facet on astragalus or talus” is a synapomorphy in Lemuriformes ?

Nevertheles , groups are classified by synapomorphies , NEVER by plesiomorphic characteristics . Furthermore ;characteristics are never considered "out of context" (= in isolation ) and/or are not the sole main or crucial arguments

Darwinius is NOT placed propperly in the phylogenitic tree and by using methods reflecting " the state of the art "
"opposable thumbs and nails " are common for ALL primates ,haplorhini AND Strepsirrhini alike

http://evolutiebiologie.blogspot.com/2009/05/link-bbc1-26-mei-2009.html


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_0ahgj-edziw/sigg7f7c_xi/aaaaaaaaad4/5zn3iqk6vyq/s320/facet+talus.jpg
About the slope of the talofibular facet.
In lemurs(Strepsirhini ), the facet slopes outward, while in Haplorini ; tarsiers and anthropoids (and humans) it is steep.

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/2/photos/636/600x600/74/ida-3.jpg?et=a2wasrkwj9mkwtm3nmvr2w&nmid=245423619

Ida 3.JPG

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darwinius_masillae


http://evolutie.blog.com/5037731/ (Gert Korthof )
Prof Gerdien De jong
http://evolutiebiologie.blogspot.com/2009/05/hoe-vreselijk-voor-ida.html

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/3/photos/636/600x600/106/01ida02.png?et=sagigntmbx7b%2ctxxdwylsw&nmid=254874317

Geiseltal primates

Figure 3
. Radiographic comparison of middle Eocene primates from Geiseltal in eastern Germany.

(A)— Europolemur klatti (Weigelt, 1933), GMH CeIV-3656, left and right mandible with I1–2, C1, P2-M3d and I1–2, C1, P3-M3s. (B)— Europolemur klatti (Weigelt, 1933), GMH LeoI-4233, part of the skull with upper dentition, which is part of the holotype. (C)— Europolemur klatti (Weigelt, 1933), GMH XXXVII-120, fragmentary left mandible with double-rooted P2, P3–4, and heavily worn M1–3. (D)— Europolemur klatti (Weigelt, 1933), GMH XXII-1, right mandibular ramus with P3-M3 and alveoli for a double rooted P2. (E)— Protoadapis ignoratus (Thalmann, 1994), GMH XXII-549, part of type specimen, fragment of right mandible with C1, P3–4, M1, alveoli of P2 and M3 (mirrored). (F)— Protoadapis weigelti Gingerich, 1977, GMH XXII-624, right mandibular ramus with P3-M3, root of a small single-rooted P2 and alveolus of C1, which is isolated (mirrored). (G)— Godinotia neglecta (Thalmann, Haubold & Martin, 1989), holotype (GMH L-2), detail: palate containing M3-P3s and d, and the small unicuspid and one-rooted P2s. Arrows show the position of P2/P2. Geiseltal primates come from Middle Eocene zones MP12 and 13, slightly later in time than those from Messel (MP11). Godinotia neglecta, like Darwinius masillae, is distinguished from Europolemur klatti by the presence of small, straight, single-rooted P2.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g003



Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/500x500/77/grube-messel-pit-monkey-h-003.jpg?et=tk6msef6zvahfyf8w42%2bog&nmid=246914101

Grube-Messel-pit-Monkey-H-003.jpg

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/gallery/2009/may/19/fossil-ida-missing-link?picture=347579458


10 / 13

This 49 million year old fossil of a monkey's hand, only a few centimeters in size, was found at Messel

Photograph: Jonathan Blair/Corbis


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/2/photos/636/600x600/161/karanesia-bitarsia-afrotarsius.jpg?et=hym%2cptz2cbtm8efekafjva&nmid=245423619

Karanesia , biretia , afrotarsius.jpg

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/500x500/96/human-biretia-fayumensis-fossil-bg.jpg?et=objd2vfe4fnqeopwl59rxg&nmid=253710331

biretia Megalopsis

http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Ancient_Anthropoid_Origins_Discovered_In_Africa.html

A fossilised upper tooth of Biretia megalopsis next to a small coin. Credit: Science/ E. Seiffert.
http://www.hominides.com/html/actualites/actu291005-primate-anthropoide-fayoum.htm


Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/4/photos/636/500x500/95/051013222302.jpg?et=ti4ivxna06r1aoj7zahsca&nmid=253706319

051013222302.jpg

The subtle topography of tiny teeth and jawbones enabled identification of two new ( african )anthropoid ancestors that lived 37 million years ago. (Image courtesy of Duke University)


http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/2005/10/seiffertsimonsscience1005_print.htm
Biretia fayumensis
Biretia megalopsis
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/10/051013222302.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/1017_051017_egyptprimates.html

Who is This?

http://multiply.com/mu/tsjok45/image/5/photos/636/600x600/89/f2.large.jpg?et=uhy12jq2fywpzfqn%2btcs0g&nmid=253479219

F2.large.jpg

The dentition of Anthrasimias gujaratensis sp. nov. (A) Occlusal stereopair of IITR/SB/VLM 1137, a left upper first molar. (B) Occlusal stereopair of IITR/SB/VLM 1100, a left upper second molar. (C) Lingual view of IITR/SB/VLM 1137. (D) Lingual view of IITR/SB/VLM 1100. (E) Occlusal stereopair of IITR/SB/VLM 1017, a right lower third molar. (F) occlusal and occluso-lingual view of IITR/SB/VLM 1201, a right dP4. (Scale bars, 1 mm.)


http://www.pnas.org/content/105/32/11093.figures-only?cited-by=yes&legid=pnas%3B105/32/11093

Anthrasimias gujaratensis


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080804190705.htm

09 aug 2008,

55 Miljoen jaar oude apentanden gevonden in India
- In een kolenmijn in India zijn vier apentanden gevonden, die volgens onderzoekers zeker 55 miljoen jaar oud zijn.
Tot nu toe waren enkel 45 miljoen jaar oude overblijfselen van apen in Azië gevonden.
De tanden behoren toe aan de Anthrasimias gujaratensis, een prehistorische aap zo klein als een eekhoorn.
Dat schrijven de onderzoekers van de Amerikaanse Duke Universiteit in een PNAS artikel
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/32/11093.abstract

.
De tanden wijzen erop dat de primaat ongeveer 75 gram woog en eruit zag als een maki.


Het aapje zou voornamelijk geleefd hebben van insecten en af en toe wat groen.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The oldest Asian record of ANTHROPOIDEA

Sunil Bajpai*, Richard F. Kay†,‡, Blythe A. Williams‡, Debasis P. Das*, Vivesh V. Kapur§, and B. N. Tiwari¶


+Author Affiliations

*Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, India;


‡Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708;
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