Thuis
Contacten

    Hoofdpagina


Fröbel aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche Friedrich Fröbel Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel

Dovnload 339.95 Kb.

Fröbel aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche Friedrich Fröbel Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel



Pagina10/11
Datum12.03.2017
Grootte339.95 Kb.

Dovnload 339.95 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11



Copyright © 1998-2009 Froebel Web. All rights reserved. info@froebelweb.org

friedrich froebel webring
[ Previous| Next| Random Site| List Sites]

HubPages HubPages

sign in aanmelden

start a new Hub start een nieuwe hub

my account mijn account

join mee

help helpen

Home Naar huis

Topics Onderwerpen

Hubs Hubs

Answers Antwoorden

Hubbers Hubbers

Forums Forum

Bovenkant formulier

Onderkant formulier

All Topics Alle onderwerpen

Education and Science Onderwijs en Wetenschappen

Elementary, Middle School and High School Elementary, Middle School en High School

Friedrich Froebel: Founder of the First Kindergarten Friedrich Fröbel: Oprichter van de eerste kleuterschool

Friedrich Froebel: Founder of the First Kindergarten Friedrich Fröbel: Oprichter van de eerste kleuterschool

90 90


rate or flag this page tarief of vlag deze pagina

Facebook Facebook

By Rachel Nichols Door Rachel Nichols

http://s4.hubimg.com/u/139279_f520.jpg

Ads by Google


The Early Childhood Education Community owes so much to Friedrich Froebel. De Early Childhood Education Gemeenschap dankt zo veel aan Friedrich Fröbel. He truly pioneered early childhood education as we know it today. Hij echt een pionier-en vroegschoolse educatie zoals we die nu kennen. With the creation of Froebel's first kindergarten, views of children and their capacity to learn changed dramatically. Met de oprichting van de eerste kleuterschool Froebel's, meningen van kinderen en hun vermogen om te leren drastisch veranderd.

Born on April 21, 1782 in Oberweißbach, Germany, Friedrich was the youngest of six children. Geboren op 21 april 1782 in Oberweißbach, Duitsland, Friedrich was de jongste van zes kinderen. Friedrich's mother died when he was still an infant, and his father, a pastor, left him to care for himself. Friedrich's moeder stierf toen hij nog een baby, en zijn vader, een dominee, liet hem de zorg voor zichzelf. When he was ten years old, his uncle took over his care. Toen hij tien jaar oud was, zijn oom nam zijn zorg. As a young child, Friedrich Froebel spent a lot of time playing alone in the gardens around his home. Als een jong kind, Friedrich Fröbel besteed veel tijd te spelen alleen in de tuin rond zijn huis. This led to a love and respect of nature that would remain throughout his adult life. Dit leidde tot een liefde en respect voor de natuur dat zou blijven gedurende zijn volwassen leven.

In 1797, now fifteen years old, Froebel attended school to learn about forestry, geometry, land surveying, and valuation; and by 1802, he was working as a forester. In 1797, nu vijftien jaar oud, Froebel naar school om te leren over bosbouw, geometrie, landmeetkunde, en waardering, en door 1802, was hij werkzaam als boswachter. Ever the student, Friedrich attended Frankfurt University to study architecture, and later, began teaching under Johann J. Pestalozzi, a well respected educator of the day. Ooit van de student, Friedrich aanwezig Universiteit van Frankfurt aan de architectuur studeren, en later, begon les te geven onder Johann J. Pestalozzi, een gerespecteerde opvoeder van de dag. Pestalozzi welcomed the poor into his school, including orphans (practice that was revolutionary). Pestalozzi is verheugd over de armen in zijn school, inclusief weeskinderen (praktijk die revolutionair was). He believed that children needed to be active in their own learning. Hij geloofde dat kinderen nodig zijn om actief te zijn in hun eigen leerproces.

After leaving his teaching post, Froebel left the school to become a private tutor. Na het verlaten van zijn leerstoel, Froebel verliet de school om een ​​prive-leraar te worden. The parents of the children he tutored offered Froebel a small patch of their property to use as a garden. De ouders van de kinderen die hij begeleid bood Froebel een klein stukje van hun eigendom te gebruiken als een tuin. The learning experiences with the children in the garden convinced Froebel that action and direct observation were the best ways to educate. De leerervaringen met de kinderen in de tuin van overtuigd dat Froebel actie en directe observatie waren de beste manier op te voeden.

In 1837, at the age of 55, Friedrich Froebel founded his own school and called it "kindergarten", or the "children's garden". In 1837, op de leeftijd van 55, Friedrich Fröbel stichtte zijn eigen school en noemde het "kleuterschool", of de "kinderen van de tuin". Kindergarten was a new word created by Froebel to express his vision for early childhood education: Kleuterschool was een nieuw woord gecreëerd door Froebel om zijn visie te uiten voor-en vroegschoolse educatie:

"Children are like tiny flowers; they are varied and need care, but each is beautiful alone and glorious when seen in the community of peers." "Kinderen zijn net als kleine bloemen, ze zijn gevarieerd en zorg nodig, maar elke is mooi en heerlijk alleen wanneer gezien in de gemeenschap van peers."

Prior to Froebel's kindergarten, children under the age of seven did not attend school. Voorafgaand aan de kleuterschool Froebel stelt, heeft kinderen onder de leeftijd van zeven niet naar school. It was believed that young children did not have the ability to concentrate or to develop cognitive and emotional skills before this age. Men geloofde dat jonge kinderen niet de mogelijkheid om zich te concentreren of om cognitieve en emotionele vaardigheden te ontwikkelen vóór deze leeftijd hebben. However, Froebel expressed his own beliefs about the importance of early education by stating that ". . . because learning begins when consciousness erupts, education must also". Echter, Fröbel uitte zijn eigen opvattingen over het belang van vroegtijdige educatie door te stellen dat "... Want leren begint wanneer het bewustzijn uitbarst, het onderwijs moet ook".

Froebel labeled his approach to education as "self-activity". Froebel gelabeld zijn benadering van het onderwijs als "self-activiteit". This idea allows the child to be led by his or her own interests and to freely explore them. Dit idee kan het kind te worden geleid door zijn of haar eigen belangen en om vrij te verkennen. The teacher's role, therefore, was to be a guide rather than lecturer. Rol van de leraar, daarom was het een gids in plaats van docent te worden.

Froebel's kindergarten was designed to meet each child's need Froebel De kleuterschool is ontworpen om elk kind behoefte te voldoen

for: voor:

- physical activity - Fysieke activiteit

- the development of sensory awareness and physical dexterity - De ontwikkeling van zintuiglijk bewustzijn en fysieke behendigheid

- creative expression - Creatieve expressie

- exploration of ideas and concepts - Verkenning van ideeën en concepten

- the pleasure of singing - Het plezier van het zingen

- the experience of living among others - De ervaring van het leven onder andere

- satisfaction of the soul - De tevredenheid van de ziel

Froebel's school featured games, play, songs, stories, and crafts to stimulate imagination and develop physical and motor skills. Froebel school featured spelletjes, spelen, liedjes, verhalen en ambachten aan de verbeelding stimuleren en ontwikkelen van fysieke en motorische vaardigheden. The materials in the room were divided into two categories: De materialen in de kamer waren verdeeld in twee categorieën:

Gifts: Geschenken:

were objects that were fixed in form such as blocks. waren objecten die in vorm, zoals vaste blokken. The purpose was that in playing with the object, the child would learn the underlying concept represented by the object. De bedoeling was dat in het spelen met het object, het kind zou het onderliggende concept vertegenwoordigd door het object te leren.

Occupations Beroepen

allowed more freedom and consisted of things that children could shape and manipulate such as clay, sand, beads, and string. toegestaan ​​meer vrijheid en bestond uit dingen die kinderen zouden kunnen vormen en te manipuleren, zoals klei, zand, kralen en string. There was an underlying symbolic meaning in all that was done. Er was een onderliggende symbolische betekenis in alles, wat werd gedaan. Even clean up time was seen as a reminder to the child of God's plan for moral and social order. Zelfs clean up tijd werd gezien als een herinnering aan het kind van Gods plan voor morele en sociale orde.

In 1852, after a short illness, Friedrich Froebel passed away. In 1852, na een korte ziekte, Friedrich Fröbel overleden. During his lifetime, he changed the face of education in Germany, and lead other educators to follow in his path. Tijdens zijn leven veranderde hij het gezicht van het onderwijs in Duitsland, en leiden andere opvoeders te volgen op zijn pad. Between 1848 and 1852 thirty one kindergartens had been founded in German cities. Tussen 1848 en 1852 eenendertig kleuterscholen was opgericht in Duitse steden. Unlike other educational institutions, many kindergartens were open to children of all social classes and religious denominations. In tegenstelling tot andere onderwijsinstellingen, vele kleuterscholen waren toegankelijk voor kinderen van alle sociale klassen en religieuze denominaties. The teachers encouraged tolerance and understanding among these diverse segments of the population. De leraren aangemoedigd tolerantie en begrip tussen deze verschillende segmenten van de bevolking. Froebel's most important gifts to children were invaluable. De belangrijkste geschenken Froebel om kinderen waren van onschatbare waarde.

He gave children: Hij gaf kinderen:

- respect for their intellectual and emotional - Respect voor hun intellectuele en emotionele

abilities and development vaardigheden en ontwikkeling

- the classroom (symbolically viewed as an - De klas (symbolisch gezien als een

extension of a flourishing uitbreiding van een bloeiende

garden), tuin),

- and that which he needed most as a child: - En datgene wat hij het meest nodig als een kind:

A teacher who took on the role of loving, supportive parent. Een leraar die nam de rol van liefhebbende, ondersteunende ouder. Friedrich Froebel was truly a pioneer of Early Childhood Education, and a role model that all educators can still learn from today. Friedrich Fröbel was echt een pionier op het gebied van Early Childhood Education, en een rolmodel dat alle opvoeders nog kunnen leren van vandaag.

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

Texts by and about Froebel Teksten van en over Froebel

Fröbel, F. (1826) On the Education of Man (Die Menschenerziehung), Keilhau/Leipzig: Wienbrach. Fröbel, F. (1826) Op het Onderwijs van de Mens (Die Menschenerziehung), Keilhau / Leipzig: Wienbrach.

Lilley, I. (ed.) (1967) Friedrich Froebel: A selection from his writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lilley, I. (red.) (1967) Friedrich Fröbel: Een keuze uit zijn geschriften, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kilpatrick, WH (1916) Froebel's Kindergarden Principles Critically Examined, New York : Macmillan. Kilpatrick, WH (1916) Froebel de kleuterschool Principes kritisch tegen het licht, New York: Macmillan.

Lawrence, E. (ed.) (1952)Friedrich Froebel and English Education, London: University of London Press. Lawrence, E. (red.) (1952) Friedrich Fröbel en Engels Onderwijs, London: University of London Press. Series of essays on key elements of Fröbel's thought and practice. Serie essays over de belangrijkste elementen van het denken Fröbel's en de praktijk.

Mutter-und Kose-Lieder (1844) is called Mother Play (1895). Mutter Kose-und-Lieder (1844) heet Mother Play (1895). Other works translated into English are Letters on the Kindergarten (1891), Froebel's Chief Writings on Education (1912), and his fragmentary autobiography. Andere werken in het Engels vertaald zijn letters op de Kindergarten (1891), Chief Writings Froebel's on Education (1912), en zijn fragmentarische autobiografie. His name is also written Fröbel. Zijn naam is ook geschreven Fröbel.

See biographies by AB Hanschmann (tr. 1897) and HC Bowen (1903, repr. 1970); WH Kilpatrick, Froebel's Kindergarten Principles (1916); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997). Zie biografieën van AB Hanschmann (vert. 1897) en HC Bowen (1903, repr 1970.) WH Kilpatrick, Froebel's Kindergarten Principles (1916), N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

De geschiedenis van Kleuterschool

Kindergarten is a classroom program that consists of children ages Kindergarten is een klaslokaal programma dat bestaat uit kinderen van

three to seven years of age. drie tot zeven jaar oud. The programs range from half days to full De programma's variëren van dagen tot half vol

days of school depending on the availability of the school system. dag van de school afhankelijk van de beschikbaarheid van het schoolsysteem. For Voor

most children this is the first step towards developing social skills in a de meeste kinderen is dit de eerste stap op weg naar het ontwikkelen van sociale vaardigheden in een

group setting without the assistance of mom or dad. groep instellen zonder de hulp van mama of papa. Most kindergartens De meeste kleuterscholen

share the objectives of teaching social skills, self-esteem and developing deel van de doelstellingen van het aanleren van sociale vaardigheden, zelfvertrouwen en het ontwikkelen van

a child's academic ability. van een kind academische bekwaamheid.

There was a kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin, founded by Er was een kleuterschool in Watertown, Wisconsin, gesticht door

Margarethe Schurz in 1856. Margarethe Schurz in 1856. Elizabeth Peabody had established one in Boston Elizabeth Peabody hadden gevestigd een in Boston

in 1873. in 1873. But the first kindergarten in the world was founded by a man Maar de eerste kleuterschool in de wereld werd gesticht door een man

named Friedrich Froebel. de naam Friedrich Fröbel. Friedrich Froebel was known as the "Father of Friedrich Fröbel werd bekend als de "Vader van

Kindergarten" because he developed the first kindergarten in Germany in Kleuterschool "omdat hij ontwikkelde de eerste kleuterschool in Duitsland in

1837 (Colliers). 1837 (Colliers). His kindergarten developed theories and practices that Zijn kleuterschool ontwikkelde theorieën en praktijken die

are still being used today in kindergarten classrooms. worden nog steeds gebruikt vandaag de dag in de kleuterschool klaslokalen. His ideas were Zijn ideeën werden

that children need to have play time in order to learn. dat kinderen nodig hebben om te spelen de tijd hebben om te leren. Kindergarten Kindergarten

should be a place for children to grow and learn from their social moet een plek voor kinderen om te groeien en te leren van hun sociale worden

interaction with other children. interactie met andere kinderen.
Friedrich Froebel wrote a book based on his theories and practices Friedrich Fröbel schreef een boek gebaseerd op zijn theorieën en praktijken

concerning the kindergarten environment. met betrekking tot de kleuterschool omgeving. The book was burned by the Het boek werd verbrand door de

German community. Duitstalige gemeenschap. They did not believe children needed to play in order Ze geloofden niet dat kinderen nodig om te spelen om

to learn. om te leren. They thought his theories were outrageous. Ze dacht dat zijn theorieën schandalig waren.


The first kindergarten was established to help children of poverty and De eerste kleuterschool werd opgericht om kinderen van de armoede te helpen en

who had special needs. die had speciale behoeften. "Many nurseries at this time would coincide with "Veel crèches op dit moment zou samenvallen met

the kindergartens which were run by the philanthropically minded women in de kleuterscholen die door de philanthropically gelijkgestemde vrouwen lopen in

order to serve the families of the poor" (Cremin). These Om aan de families van de armen "(Cremin) dienen. Deze

nurseries/kindergartens would stress the systematic play of Froebel's crèches / kleuterscholen wil benadrukken de systematische spel van Froebel's

philosophy. filosofie. Through systematic play the children are able to learn to Door het systematisch spelen de kinderen in staat zijn om te leren

discriminate, analyze, share and solve problems. discrimineren, analyseren, delen en problemen op te lossen.
In 1872, kindergartens gained support from the National Education In 1872, kleuterscholen kreeg steun van de Nationale Onderwijs

Association, which in 1884 established a department of kindergarten Vereniging, die in 1884 werd een afdeling van de kleuterschool

instruction. instructie. Through the efforts of many people the kindergarten has Door de inspanningen van vele mensen de kleuterschool heeft

worked its way into many schools, private and public. werkte zijn weg naar vele scholen, private en publieke.


Works Cited Werken Geciteerd


Colliers Encyclopedia, vol.14 1996 ed. Colliers Encyclopedie, vol.14 1996 ed..

Cremin, Lawrence. Cremin, Lawrence. "American Education" "American Onderwijs"


Prepared by Shelly Ann Richie-Sharp Samengesteld door Shelly Ann Richie-Sharp
Journal of Instructional Pedagogies

Using manipulatives to teach, Page 1

Using manipulatives to teach elementary mathematics

Matthew Boggan

Mississippi State University

Sallie Harper

Mississippi State University

Anna Whitmire

Mississippi State University

ABSTRACT


The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math

manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged

school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of

manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use them in

their lessons. Throughout this paper, a discussion of the positive results of several research

studies that strongly suggest the use of manipulatives will be mentioned. The history and

advancement of manipulatives with also be discussed. Defining manipulatives and explaining

the correct way to use them will be highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: manipulatives, instructional methods, mathematics, instruction, NCTM, reluctant

Journal of Instructional Pedagogies

Using manipulatives to teach, Page 2

INTRODUCTION

According to the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, “the foundation for

children’s mathematical development is established in the early years” (Seefeldt & Wasik, 2006,

p. 249). It is important for children to have a variety of materials to manipulate and the

opportunity to sort, classify, weigh, stack and explore if they are to construct mathematical

knowledge. “In order to have opportunities to learn math, children need firsthand experiences

related to math, interaction with other children and adults concerning these experiences and time

to reflect on the experiences” (Seefeldt & Wasik, 2006, p. 250). Educational research indicated

that the most valuable learning occurs when students actively construct their own mathematical

understanding, which is often accomplished through the use of manipulatives.

HISTORY OF MANIPULATIVES

Since ancient times, people of several different civilizations have used physical objects to

help them solve everyday math problems. The ancient civilizations of Southwest Asia used

counting boards, which were wooden or clay trays covered in a thin layer of sand. The counting

board users would draw symbols in the sand to tally inventory or whatever else they may need to

count. The ancient Romans created the first abacus based on counting board. The abacus was

made of beans or stones which moved in grooves in sand or on tables of wood, stone, or metal.

“The Chinese abacus, which came into use centuries later, may have been an adaptation of the

Roman abacus” (“Research on the” n.d.). The Mayans and the Aztecs both had counting

devices that were made of corn kernels strung on string or wires that were stretched across a

wooden frame. The Incas also had their own counting tool, which was knotted strings called

quipu (“Research on the”, n.d.).

“The late 1800s saw the invention of the first true manipulative-maneuverable objects

that appeal to several different senses and are specifically designed for teaching mathematical

concepts” (“Research on the” n.d.). In 1837, German educator Friedrich Froebel introduced the

world’s first kindergarten. “He designed the educational play materials known as Froebel Gifts,

or Frobelgaben, which included geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks”

(“Friedrich Froebel”, 2009). Then in the early 1900s, Italian educator Maria Montessori

continued with the idea that manipulatives are important to education. She designed several

materials to help elementary students learn the basic ideas of math. “Since the 1900s,

manipulatives have come to be considered essential in teaching mathematics at the elementary

school level” (“Research on the,” n.d.). In fact, the National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics (NCTM) has recommended the use of manipulatives in teaching mathematical

concepts at all grade levels.

MANIPULATIVES DEFINED

Manipulatives can come in a variety of forms and they are often defined as “physical

objects that are used as teaching tools to engage students in the hands-on learning of

mathematics” (“Using manipulatives,” 2009). Manipulatives can be purchased at a store,

brought from home, or teacher and student made. The manipulatives can range from dried beans

and bottle caps to Unifix cubes and base-ten blocks. They are used to introduce, practice, or

remediate a math concept. “A good manipulative bridges the gap between informal math and

Journal of Instructional Pedagogies

Using manipulatives to teach, Page 3

formal math. To accomplish this objective, the manipulative must fit the developmental level of

the child” (Smith, 2009, p. 20). Kindergarten children should have individual counters, whereas

older students could use colored wooden rods that represent different numbers. The

manipulative must fit the mathematical ability of the child or it is useless.

WAYS TO USE MANIPULATIVES

Manipulatives can be used in teaching a wide variety of topics in mathematics, including

the objectives from the five NCTM standards: problem solving, communicating, reasoning,

connections, and estimation. The materials should “foster children’s concepts of numbers and

operations, patterns, geometry, measurement, data analysis, problem solving, reasoning,

connections, and representations” (Seefeldt & Wasik, 2006, p.93). Teachers could use counters,

place-value mats, base-ten blocks, and fraction strips while teaching from the numbers and

operations standard. The counters could be used to teach one-on-one correspondence, ordinal

numbers, and basic addition and subtraction. The fraction strips could be used to add and

subtract fractions or to show equivalent fractions. Pattern blocks, attribute blocks and scales

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

  • [ Previous| Next| Random Site| List Sites]

  • Dovnload 339.95 Kb.