H1- learning vocabulary – general advice

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H1- learning vocabulary – general advice

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Dovnload 175.74 Kb.

H1- Learning vocabulary – general advice

Try to learn new words in phrases not in isolation.

Adjectives + nouns = rich vocabulary, classical music.

Verbs + nouns = to express an opinion, to take sides.

Nouns in phrases = in touch with, a train set, a sense of humour.

Words + prepositions = at a loss of words, thanks to you.

It is good to revise your work, once in a while.
H2- Learning vocabulary – aids to learn.

Learn words with associated meanings together.

Learn words with a grammatical association together.

Pictures might help you to remember vocabulary.

Word forks are good ways of learning adjectives and verbs.

Bubble networks can be a useful way of writing down phrasal verbs.

Tables can also help clarify collocations (words that are often associated).
H3- Organising a vocabulary notebook

Organising words by meaning = words for movement, words for thinking.

Put words in various types of diagrams.

Organising by word-class = stop=cease (more formal)

H4-The names of English language words

A good student works hard at her books and she enjoys learning.

A = article

Good = adjective

Student = noun

Works = verb

Hard = adverb

At = preposition



And = conjunction

She = pronoun


Learning = gerund

Noun = zelfstandig naamwoord

Countable = words that have a plural form, artist – artists

Non-countable = words that don’t have a plural, beauty
Verbs = werkwoorden

Infinitive = go

-ing form = going

Past participle = gone

Past tense = went
Irregular = go, gone, went

Regular = live, lived, lived

Intransitive = when a verb doesn’t need an object, Has Louis gone?

Transitive = when a verb is followed by an object, you make something.


ir- = prefix

regular = root

-ity = suffix

opposite/ antonym = het tegenovergestelde, dik en dun
syllable = lettergreep

stress = nadruk

Slang = an extremely informal style of speaking and writing.

Colloquial = a suitable style mainly for conversations, He’s a nice guy.

Pejorative words have a negative association, pig-headed.

. = full stop

- = hyphen

( )= brackets

, = comma

– = dash

“ “= inverted commas

; = semi-colon

! = exclamation mark

A = block capitals

‘ = apostrophe

? = question mark

Fiddle = frunniken.

Thrifty = zuinig

Cunning = gemeen of achterbaks.
H5 - Using your dictionary

Antonyms = opposites

Sofa = divan = couch = settee

Boots = bootees = wellingtons

Sailing boat = ketch = dinghy = yacht
H6 - Revising vocabulary

Revising is a good way to learn new things.

H8 – Suffixes

-er = used for the person who does an activity  writer, painter.

-er/-or = used for things which do a particular job  pencil-sharpener, projector.

-er/-ee = used for person who does something (-er) and person who receives or experiences the action (-ee) employer/employee

-(t)ion/ -sion/-ion = used to make nouns out of verbs  complication, pollution, admission.

-ist (a person) and –ism (an activity or ideology) = used for people’s believes, politics and ideologies, and sometimes their profession  Buddhism, journalism, Marxist.

-ist = often used for people who play an musical instrument  pianist, cellist.

-ness = used to make nouns from adjectives  goodness, readiness.

- ever = it does not matter which  however, whoever.

Adjective suffixes:

-able/-ible = used with verbs, means: can be done  drinkable, flexible.


-ise (or -ize) = used to make verbs from adjectives  modernise, industrialise.

To help you recognise the word-class:

-ment (nouns)  excitement, enjoyment.

-ity (nouns)  flexibility, productivity.

-hood (abstract nouns especially family terms)  childhood, motherhood.

-ship (abstract nouns especially status)  friendship, partnership.

-ive (adjectives) passive, active.

-al (adjectives)  brutal, legal.

-ous (adjectives)  delicious, furious.

-ful (adjectives)  forgetful, hopeful.

-less (adjectives)  useless, harmless.

-ify (verbs)  beautify, terrify.
A cooker = het fornuis
H9 – Prefixes

Pseudo = false

H10 – Roots

Prospect for gold = search

Reverted to my old band = went back

The scandal diverted attention = took attention away

He conducted the orchestra = led

The king was deposed = put off the throne

The government have imposed = put into force
Verb Person noun Adjective Abstract noun

Deport deportee deported deportation

Introduce introducer introductory introduction

Oppress oppressor oppressive oppression

Compose composer composite composition
H11 – Abstract nouns

Abstract noun = and idea, experience or quality.

Apprenticeship = leerjaren.

Martyrdom = martelgang.

Width = afstand, breedte.

Inquisitiveness = leergierigheid.

H12 – Compound adjectives

Absent – minded = forgetful

Quick – witted = intelligent

Big – headed = proud of herself

Two – faced = hypocritical

Stuck – up = snobbish

All – out =

Hard – up = blut

Cut – price =

Off – peak =


Compound noun = a fixed expression

Pen – name = a false name used by writers

Shoe horn = schoenlepel

Arms race = countries wanting the most powerful weapons

Brain drain = highly intelligent people leaving the country to work abroad

Race relations =

A crack-down on public spending = action to prevent.

Our profit was $10 on a turnover of $100 = money passing through a company.

We have a rather fast staff turnover = change

The outlook for tomorrow is good = prospect

The outset = the start

We parked in a lay-by on the by-pass = parking space at the side of a road, road avoiding the centre of town.

A three-mile tailback = file

Outlay = amount of money spend on something

Bonsai =

Alcove = holte of nis.

Yashmak =

Jackal = jackhals

Caftan =

Shawl = sjaal

Sherbet = sorbet

Easel =

Embargo =

Junta =

Avant garde =

Cul de sac = doodlopende straat/steeg

Duvet = donsdeken

Gateau =

Sauté =

Vendetta =

Dogma = geloofsartikel

Dachshund = tekkel

Lemming =

Coup = staatsgreep

WHO = World Health Organisation

GM (O) = Genetically Modified (Organism)

KGB = the former USSR

NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

OPEC = Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries

PTO = Please Turn Over

NB = Please Note

Acronyms are formed from the first letters of a word or series of words and are pronounced as a word (NATO... AIDS)

c/o = waar de brief heen gaat.

enc. = als er wat bij de brief zit.
BSc = Bachelor of Science

Ext. = extension

Unesco = United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

OAP = Old Age Pensioners

POW = Prisoners Of War

CFC = Chloro-fluoro-carbons

Dep = Depart

Arr = Arrive

RN = the Navy in Great Britain

ESP = Extra Sensory Perception, when you can see the future or ghosts

BT = British Telecom

Keypal = a friend you email with

E-commerce = business based on the internet

Information fatigue syndrome = a condition of psychological stress induced by trying to cope with too much information

Singleton = an unmarried man or woman

Spin doctor = someone whose job it is to manipulate popular opinion in favour of politicians or other public figures

Outsourcing = employing workers to do work away from the company site

Hot-desking = workers sharing a desk instead of having their own

Waitperson = waiter, waitress

Intermercial = an advert distributed via the internet

Laddish = cruel male behaviour

Fiend = barbaar

Debtor = debiteur, schuldenaar

Dome = koepel

Zoology = dierenkunde

Cows moo

Horses neigh, and go clip clop on the road.

Whirr = sound like a bird’s wings moving rapidly

Wheeze = breathe noisily

Bash = strike heavily so as to break or injure

Gash = a long deep cut or wound

Trickle = to flow in a thin stream or drops

Gargle = wash the throat with liquid kept moving by a stream of breath

Fire crackles

A bored child wriggles

Someone with asthma wheezes



- Homographs = words that you write the same way but mean something different and maybe pronounced differently.

- Homophones = words with different meanings which are pronounced in the same way but are spelt differently.

Faze/phase = .....,fase

Hoarse/horse = schor/hees, paard

Pane/ pain= vierkantje/pijn

Rein/rain = teugel, regen

Stake/steak = brandstapel, biefstuk

Tyre/tire = autoband, vermoeien

Aloud/allowed = hardop, dat het mag

Mown/moan = …., kreunen

Pare/pair/pear = kort knippen, stelletje, peer

Pray/prey = bidden, prooi

Rite/right = plechtigheid, waar/juist

Tee/tea = …..,thee

Brake/break = stoppen/remmen, breken

Grate/great = schrappen/raspen, enorm

Lays/laze =

Peal/peel = luidkeelse uitroep, pellen

Rays/raise = stralen, opvoeden

Sole/soul = uniek/zool, ziel

Fare/fair = gerecht/reiskosten, eerlijk

Groan/grown = kreunen, gegroeid

Place/plaice = plek, school (vis)

Read/reed = lezen, rieten/muziek


Prerequisite = absolutely necessary


I wonder what prompted him to write that letter = what caused him

This problem stems from = is ontstaan uit

The upshot of all these problems = conclusie

When the election results were announced, chaos ensued = volgden

Concede = toegeven

Poles apart = als mensen het total niet met elkaar eens zijn.

Huge discrepancy = grote tegenstelling, contrast


Into the bargain/ to boot = also


Text-referring words = they take their meaning from the surrounding text.

Example: Pollution is increasing. The problem is getting worse each day. = text-referring word

Discourse markers = Spreektaal aan het begin van een zin, zoals: right, OK, let me see, you see, anyway,still


In parenthesis, let us not forget that = making a point that is a side issue, not part of the main argument.

A list is given overleaf = turn the page and you will find the list

Stamina = doorzettingskracht

Sellotape = doorzichtig plakband

Pliers = tang

Pincers = tang/klem

Tongs = een soort schaar waar je dingen mee kan oppakken

Shears = grote schaar

Jodhpurs = soort paardrijbroek, wijd aan de bovenkant en strak aan de onderkant

Braces = dingen die je broek omhoog houden

Dungarees = tuinbroek

Lodgings = a room in a flat

Premises = the building itself

The outskirts of a town = the beginning or the end of a town

The proceeds of a concert = money from selling tickets

Draughts = dammen

Tracksuit = joggingpak

Chapter 31 – Countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings
Material Things
Cloth (stof) a cloth (doekje)

Work (werk) a work (een boek/film etc)

Paper (papier) a paper (werkstuk/krant)

Home (thuis) a home (instituut)

Iron (ijzer) an iron (strijkbout)
Some items have a different meaning when countable
Uncountable countable
Coffee/Tea (koffie/thee) two coffees and four teas (kopjes koffie/thee)

Potato (gestampte aardappel) two potatoes (nog hele aardappels)

Chocolate (stuk v.e. chocoladereep) two chocolates (chocolaadjes/bonbons)

Pepper (kruiden) a pepper (een hete peper)

Onion (stukjes ui) two onions (hele uien)

Chapter 32 – Collective nouns

A flock of: birds/sheep

A herd of: cows/ deer/goats

A Shoal of: fish (also when naming a specific species of fish, like herring)

A swarm of: insects (mostly flying ones)

A pack of: hyenas, dogs, wolves (also for cards!)

A team of: surgeons/doctors/experts/reporters/scientists/rescue-workers/detectives

The crew = workers on a ship/ambulance/plane

Company = group of actors

Clump of trees = een serie bomen

Chapter 33 – Making uncountable nouns countable

(gaat vooral om de combinaties, niet om de vertalingen)

Pieces of/Bits of: bits of is smaller than pieces of. (pieces of, als in stuks. Bits of, als in stukjes)

Showers (of rain) = hevige regenval

The sunny spell (of weather) = zonnige weer

Rumbles of thunder = gerommel v. onweer

Flashes of lighting = lichtflitsen v. onweer

Claps of thunder = hardere knallen v. onweer

Loaf of bread = een brood

Cartons of milk = melkpakken

Bars of soap = zepen

Blade of grass = grassprietje

Puffs of smoke = rook dat je uitademt (sigaret)

Lump of coal/sugar = in geval van coal, stuk. In geval van suiker, klontjes

Stroke of luck/work = hoeveel geluk/werk (bij werk alleen met negatieve context)

Fit of temper = pasvorm van bui (ja, die komt duidelijk van een vertaalsite)

To be in a state of = in een bepaalde “status” zijn (be in a state of emergency)

Chapter 34 – Containers and contents
Carton = pak drinken, ook gebruikt voor 20 pakken sigaretten (slof ofzoiets?)

Tub = ton, ook gebruikt voor pakje ijs

Packet = pak

Tin = blik (in geval van drinken is het een “can”)

Chapter 35 – Countries, nationalities and languages
Countries with The in front of it: The USA, The UK, The Netherlands, The Phillipines, The Commonwealth

Countries which can be used with The: Lebanon, Gambia, Ukraine, Sudan.

Adjectives referring to countries/languages

-ish: British, Danish, Flemish, Irish, Polish, Spanish, Turkish

-(i)an: American, Australian, Brazilian, Canadian, Korean, Russian

-ese: Chinese, Japanese, Maltese, Portuguese, Taiwanese, Vietnamese

-i: Bangladeshi, Iraqi, Israeli, Kuwaiti, Pakistani, Yemeni

-ic: Arabic, Icelandic, Slavonic

Bilingual/multilingual = je beheerst meerdere talen

Chapter 36 – The Weather

Frosts = rijp

Sleet = natte sneeuw

Slush = bruinig mengels van waterig sneeuw

Settling = als sneew blijft liggen (en dus wit is)

Snowdrifts = grote hoeveelheid sneeuw

Thaw = dooien

Close = warm, op een fijne manier

Stifling = heet, waardoor je moeite hebt met ademen

Muggy = erg warm en benauwd (minder als stiffling)

Humid = heet en klam

Scorching = erg heet, positieve context

Boiling = erg heet, negatieve context

Overcast = bewolkt

Haze/hazy = lichte mist

Fog/foggy = dichte mist

Blustery = stormachtig (wind)

Gale = storm (wind)

Damp  drizzle  downpour  torrential rain  flood

Vocht  motregen  flinke bui  stortbui  vloed

Chapter 37 – Describing people: appearance

Receding = kalend

Obese = erg dik

Auburn hair = roodbruinig haar

Ginger-haired = rode haarkleur

Freckles = sproetjes

Scruffy = slordig uitziend

Chapter 38 – Describing people: character
Smart/gifted: shrewd, able, brainy

Lacking ability: half-witted, simple, daft, dim

Extroverted: spontaan, wil aandacht enzo (also used: gregarious)

Introverted: tegenovergesteld aan extroverted

Attitudes towards others:

Disagreeing: quarrelsome, argumentative

Relaxed in attitude to self and others: easy-going, even-tempered, laid-back

Impolite: ill-mannered, discourteous

Positive way of putting it negative way of putting it
Determined obstinate/pig-headed/stubborn

Confident arrogant

Unconventional/original eccentric/peculiar

Open/direct/frank blunt/abrupt/brusque/curt

Broad-minded permissive/unprincipled

Inquiring inquisitive/nosy

Generous(opposite is tight-fisted) extravagant

Innocent naïve

Ambitious pushy

Assertive aggressive/bossy

Chapter 39 – Relationships
Didn’t spot any difficult terms, if you find any, feel free to add them

Chapter 40 – At home

Master bedroom = largest, most important bedroom

Utility room = usually for washing machine, drier and the like

Shed = schuur

Loft/attic = zolder

Cellar = kelder (for storage)

Basement = kelder (in use)

Study = studieruimte/kantoortje

Landing = flat area at the top of a staircase

Hall(way) = entrance

Porch = afdakje voor de ingang

Pantry/larder = large cupboard for storing food (provisiekast)

Terrace/patio = terrasje

Power point = stopcontact

Dust-pan and brush = blik en veger

Bin-liners = afvalzakken

Self-contained flat = an apartment where you don’t share facilities with each other

Terraced house = rijtjeshuis

Bedsit = bedroom and living room all in one

Time-share = holiday flat/house where you have the right to live for one/two weeks a year

Cutlery = bestek

Chapter 41 – Everyday problems
Power cut = stroomuitval

The cup chipped = er is een stuk van het kopje afgebroken

Graze = schaafwond

Mislaid = ergens gelaten en kan het niet meer terugvinden

Stain = leave a permanent mark on something

Chapter 42 – global problems

Famine = hongersnood

AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Leprosy = lepra (ernstige huidsziekte)

Typhoid = tyfus

Refugees = voorvluchtigen

Tremor = aardschok

Chapter 43 – Education

(not sure if you’d have to know this stuff…)

Play schools/group or nursery school: kleuterschool (2 t/m 5 jaar)

Infant/junior school = basisschool (5/6 t/m 12/13 jaar)

comprehensive school or grammar school = middelbare school (12/13 t/m 16/18 jaar)

College/university = ben even de naam kwijt, maar je weet et wel =P (18+)

GCSE = General Certificate for Secondary Education (laatste toetsen in Engeland, 16 jaar)

A-levels = laatste toetsen van de school, 18 jaar

Seminars = 10-20 studenten activiteit, discussïeren

Chapter 44 – Work

Executive = belangrijke man in het bedrijf die grote beslissingen maakt

Labourer = doet zwaar, fysiek werk

Safety officer = zorgt ervoor dat machines enzo niet te gevaarlijk zijn om te gebruiken

Union representative = zorgt voor dat de wil van de werknemers aan de orde komt.

Personnel officer = zorgt voor de administratie voor nieuwe en bestaande werknemers

Education officer = zorgt voor training en lessen voor de werknemers (bijscholing)

Maternity = zwangerschapsverlof voor vrouwen

Paternity = zwangerschapsverlof voor mannen

Chapter 45 – Sport
Scuba diving = duiken

cross-country skiing = Langlaufen

Javelin = speerwerpen
Voor de rest was dr niet echt iets moeilijks te vinde

Chapter 46 – The Arts

The three main classes of arts: Literature, Fine Arts and Performing Arts

Literature = written stuff

Fine Arts = hand-made items

Performing Arts = shows and other performances

Ceramics = making pots, bowls etc.

Direction (in case of performing arts) = the way the director had the show organised

Got rave reviews (collocation) = got very enthusiastic comments
When referring to a performing art in general, leave out the definite article (the)

Chapter 47 – Music

Backing = the vocals /music which are supporting the song

Chamber music = written for a small group of orchestral instruments

Muzak/canned music/piped music = recorded, light music played continuously in public places

Discordant = strijdig

Chapter 48 – FOOD!!
Stodgy = moeilijk te verteren

Done to a turn = made just perfect

Seasoned = gekruid
Beef = meat from a cow \

Mutton = meat from a sheep + lamb |--- Red Meat

Venison = meat from a deer /
Veal = Meat from a calf \

Bacon = meat from a pig |--- White Meat

Pork, ham, chicken, turkey /

Cod = kabeljauw

Hake = stokvissen

Plaice = school

Mackerel = makreel

Trout = forel

Salmon = zalm

Prawns/shrimps = garnalen

Lobster = kreeft

Crayfish = rivierkreeft

Cockles = kokkels

Cauliflower = bloemkool

Leek = prei

Cinnamon = kaneel

Nutmeg = nootmuskaat

Parsley = peterselie

Chives = bieslook

Tarragon = dragon

Sage = salie

Chapter 49 – The Environment

Learn the pictures from 49.1 (page 101)

Greenhouse effect = broeikaseffect

Battery farming = bio-industrie (denk aan legbatterij kippen, werkt bij mij)

Chapter 50 – Towns

Skating rink = skatepark

Football pitch = voetbalveld

Estate agency = makelaar

Bottle bank = glasbak

Chemist’s = apotheek
H51 – The natural world

Mammal = zoogdier

Deciduous = lose their leaves in the winter

Evergreen = green all year round

Oak = eikenboom

Willow = wilg

Chestnut = kastanjeboom

Fir = spar

Pine = dennenboom

Hedgehog = egel

Gils = kieuwen (vis)

Scales = schubben (vis)

Bud = knop (bloem)

Petals = blaadjes van de bloem niet van de plant

Stalk = steel van de bloem

Pollen = stuifmeel, maakt een bij honing van.

Trunk = stam (boom)

Bough = dikke tak, begin van de tak

Branch = een tak

Twig = klein takje

Bark = bast

Hibernate = winterslaap, zoals squirrel, bear, turtle, hedgehog.

Emu = soort struisvogel

Endangered species = species at risk of becoming extinct.

Harvest = oogsten
H52 - Clothes

Dressing-gown = badjas

Cuff = manchet / eind van je mouw

Buckle = gesp van je riem

Braces =

Mittens = handschoenen

Hem = boord

Cardigan = vest

Collar = kraag

Sole = zool van je schoenen

Letting out = als iets te strak zit, wijder maken (rok ofzo)

Letting down = als het te kort is, langer maken (rok ofzo)

Taking in = innemen, dunner maken (broek ofzo)

Taking up = inkorten

Pleated = geplooid

Scruffy = rommelig

Velvet = fluweel

Cotton = katoen

Pin-striped = 2 kleuren gestreept

Striped = meerdere kleuren gestreept

Checked = met ruitjes/vakjes

Tartan = schotse ruitjes

Do up your laces or you’ll fall over = strik je veters of je gaat op je bek
H53 – Health and medicine

Indigestion = Stoelgang problemen

Diarrhoea = Diarree

Joint = Gewricht

Shivery = bevend

Constipated = not able to go to the toilet

Mumps = de bof

Pneumonia = longontsteking

Ulcer = zweer

Rheumatism = reuma

Hypchondriac = Hypochonder

(brain) Haemorrhage = (hersen) bloeding

Aids = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Ointment = zalfje

Plaster = gips

Syringe = spuit

Appendix = wormvormig aanhangsel (blinde darm)
H54 - Travel

Lorry = vrachtwagen

Freight train = goederentrein

Liner = pond

Boot = Achterbak

Sleeping-car = deel van de trein waar je kan slapen

Compartment = treinsdeel

Gangplank = loopplank

Porter = bagagedrager

Service station = benzine station

Signal box = seinhuisje
At sea a

Bedroom = cabin

Bed = bunk

Kitchen = galley

Right = starboard (stuurboord)

Left = port (bakboord)

People who work on a ship = crew
Travel is very general and a non count noun

Voyage is a long journey usually by sea (formal)

Marooned = gestrand en je zit vast en weet niet waar je bent.

A car does 10 km to the litre = 1 op 10

Swerve = uitwijken

Overtake other cars = inhalen

Bonnet = motorkap

Balloon = luchtbalon

Glider = zweefvliegtuig

Rudder = roer

Dual carriageway = dubbele rijbaan

Maiden voyage = eerste reis (titanic)

Train journey = trein reis
H55- Holidays

Self-catering flat = a flat which you rent, you cook for yourself

Guesthouse = accommodation like a hotel but cheaper and with fewer services

Package holiday: volledig packet (travel, accommodation, food, sometimes even excursion.)

Breath-taking: views/ scenery/ pistes

Exclusive: access/clubs/shops

Exhilarating: feeling/ride/moment

Exotic: beauty/charm/location

Glamorous: surroundings/flim star/hotel

Intoxicating: views/air/fragrant

Legendary: hospitality/figure/status

Luxurious: cruise/ship/accommodation/life-style

Mighty: river/cathedral/oak

Picturesque: streets/villages/cottage

Sublime: pleasure/simplicity/skill

Unsurpassed: opportunity/beauty/quality [nothing better exists]

Unspoilt: charm/village/woodland
Pitch a tent = tent opzetten

Top bunk = bovenste bed in een stapelbed

H56- numbers and shapes

Seven cubed = zeven kubieke meter

Four squared = vier vierkante meter

eight to the power of four = acht tot de macht van vier

pentagon = vijfhoekige vorm

octagon = achthoekige vorm

rectangle = langwerpig vierkant

sphere = 3d, rondvormig

hemisphere = two halves of a sphere

radius = straal

circumference = omtrek

+ addition

- subtraction

x multiplication

: division

Prime numbers = priemgetallen (alleen deelbaar door 1 en door zichzelf)

Decimal fraction: 0.25 (getallen achter de komma)

Vulgar fraction: 1/3 (breuken)

H57 – science and technology

Botany = plantkunde

Zoology = dierenkunde

Genetic engineering = iemand die genetische materiaal aanpast (DNA)

Hereditary = erfelijk

Ergonomics = the study of design of physical working spaces and how people interact with them (ergonomie)

Molecular biology = study of structure and function of the organic molecules associated with living organisms

Cybernetics = a study of way information is moved and controlled by the brain or machinery

Information technology = the study of technology related to the transfer of information.

Bioclimatology = the study of how climate affects living things

Geopolitics = the study of the way geographical factors help to explain the basis of the power of nation states

Nuclear engineering = the study of the way nuclear power can be made useful

Cryogenics = they study of physical systems at temperatures less than 183 centigrade’s.

Astrophysics = the application of physical laws and theories to stars and galaxies

Voice technology = technology which enables machines to interpret speech

Lever = hendel

Dissected = ontleden

Insert = erin stampen

H58- computers and the internet

RAM = tijdelijk geheugen

FAQ = frequently asked questions
H59- the press and the media

Current affaires program = roddel nieuws

Serial = a story that continues from one programme or episode to the next. Law and Order

Series = about the same characters. Heroes

Editorial = an opinion article written by the editor

Continuity person = ensures scenes in a film connect smoothly

Foreign correspondent = reports on events in other countries

Sub-editor = lays out and adds headlines to newspaper pages

H60- politics and public institutions

Federation = a union of political units under a central government

Legislature = wetgevende macht

Constituency = geographical area

Judiciary = justitie

Ballot paper = stembiljet

Marginal seat = if the vote is very close, the constituency may be referred to this
NATO= North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

OPEC = organisation of petroleum exporting countries

HS61- Crime

Steal = something is taken from you (my bike is stolen)

Rob = the person from who an item was stolen (I’m robbed!)

Charged with Accused of = beschuldigd van

Accomplice = medeplichtige

Prosecuting = vervolgen

Passing a verdict = een oordeel geven (schuldig/niet schuldig)

Case = a crime that is being investigated

Drug-trafficking = drugshandel

Forgery = vervalsen

Mugging = overvallen (in geval van bank: robbing)

Bribery = omkoperij

Probation = proeftijd
HS62- Money - buying, selling and paying

Paying methods:

Cash (contant), By cheque (via cheque), By creditcard

Current account = bank account on where you pay in your salary.

Bank statement = a paper which tells you how much money has gone in and out

Savings account = om te sparen

Overdraft = if you spent more money than you’re getting

Interest = rente

Overdrawn = rood staan (being in the red)

Mortgage = hypotheek

Paying outright = contant betalen

Discount/reduction = korting

In bulk = in grote hoeveelheden

Haggle = afdingen

Refund = geld terug

Receipt = bonnetje

Fee(s) = money paid for a service

Fare = money paid for a journey (transport)

Bargain = koopje

Rip-off = als je het niet waard vond

Income tax = tax collected from wages and salaries

Inheritance tax = tax collected on what you inherit

Excise duties = accijns

VAT (value added tax) = BTW

Tax rebate = geld terug omdat je teveel belasting hebt betaald

Unemployment benefit = bijstand

Disability allowances = WAO uitkering

Student loans = studiefinanciering

Currency = munteenheid

Rates of exchange = koerswaarde (van geld)

Shares = aandelen

Dividend = divident (je krijgt een deel van de winst van het bedrijf waar je een aandeel over bezit)

Hard currency = de munt is erg stabiel

Currencies: japan – yen; australia – dollar; India – rupee; Russia – rouble

FT Index = londense beurs

Nikkei = japanse beurs

Child benifit = kinderbijslag
HS63- Belief and opinion

Hold = used for very firm beliefs

Maintains = insist on believing, despite the evidence

Feel = strong, personal opinion

Eccentric = zonderling (wat het ook mag wezen)

Pacifist = gelooft dat vrede de wereldproblemen verhelpen (hippies)

A middle-of-the-road socialist = not left or right of the party (political)

Dogmatic = dogmatisch (zie Eccentric)

HS64- Pleasant and unpleasant feeling

Ecstatic = als je je overvrolijk voelt

Discontented = ontevreden (over)

Livid / seething with = furieus (over)

Anxious = when you are afraid and uncertain of what’s going to happen

Apprehensive about = bezorgd over

HS65 – like, dislike and desire

Loathe, detest, despise, hate, cannot stand, cannot bear = strong ways of saying that you dislike something (followed by a verb with +ing)

Repel, revolt, appal, disgust = walgen van

Dread = opposite of looking forward to something

Pet = a way of saying love/darling etc. to a child

Misogynists = vrouwenhaters

HS66 – speaking

Murmur = romantic/complaining way to speak (soft-voiced)

Mumble = nervous/insecure way to speak (soft-voiced, also unclear)

Mutter = irritated (soft-voiced)

Shriek = loud, pretty much like screaming

Groan = despair, in pain

Grumble = displeased
HS67- The six senses

Glanced = gekeken

Noiseless  silent  quiet  noisy  loud  deafening.

Stroke = een kat aaien

Patting = een hond aaien

Putrid = verrot

Pungent = sterke (penetrerende) lucht

Musty = muf

HS-68 What your body does

Grin = grijnzen

Perspire = zweten
HS69 – numbers, quantity, degree and intensity

Vast = veeeeery large

Much = mostly used in questions and negatives with uncountable nouns

Lots of = mostly for affermatives has a rather positive feeling, informal

Plenty = mostly for affermatives, used in positive contexts

A lot of = used in all structures, neutral, rather than lots in negative contents

A great deal of = uncountables, more formal

Dozens = tientallen

A bit/quite/rather/fairly/very/really/awfully/extremely  combine with ‘scale’ adjectives like: tired, worried, weak and hot.
Totally/ absolutely/completely/utterly  combine with ‘limit’ adjectives (not measured on a scale, they are ‘all or nothing’ words) like: ruined, exhausted, destroyed and wrong.
Minute = miniem

Meagre = mager

HS70 – time

Spell = indefinite, but short

Elapsed = passed

Provisional = voorlopig

HS71 – distances and dimensions

Lengthy = lang

Width = wijd (the width of the room is blabla)

Shallow = ondiep

HS72 – Obligation, need, possibility and probability

Be liable = bent verantwoordelijk voor

Mandatory = er is geen alternatief voor

Compulsory = moet

Exempt = vrijgesteld
HS73 – sound and light

Racket = herrie

Bang = a door closing loudly

Rustle = opening a paper/plastic bag

Thud = a heavy object falling onto a carpeted floor

Crash = a big solid heavy object falling onto a hard floor

Clang = a big bell ringing

Clatter = a metal pan falling onto a concrete floor

Hiss = gas leak

Rumble = noise of thunder

Roar = noise of heavy traffic/animal/waterfall

Ring = a small bell, telephone

Gloomy = somber

Glitters= glimmen

Sparkles = glitteren

Chime = rustgevend geluid

Screech = gillend geluid
HS74 – Possession, giving and lending

Possession = large objects which you own

Belongings = smaller things which you own

Proprietor = eigenaar

Tenants = huurders

Allocated = toegewezen

HS75 – Movement and speed

Dawdling = langzaam, traag

Fluttered = wapperde

Stirred = bewogen

Plodding along = moeizaam

Velocity = snelheid

Slowcoach = kletskous/nietsnut

Toddler = peuter

Plodder = werkpaard
HS76 – texture, brightness, wieght and density

Density = dichtheid

Sleek = highly polished, streamlined

Downy = new-born babies hair

Coarse = sand-like (ruw)

Jagged = sharp, irregular edges (broken glass)

Gnarled = twisted, dead wood from an old tree

Dazzling light = oogverblindend licht

Vivid collors = felle kleuren (levendige)

Dense = dichte

Sparse = schaarse

Bulky/cumbersome = lompe/dikke

Duvet = donsdeken

Wholemeal flour= volkoren bloem

Weight written as approximate metric equivalent

Ounce oz 28 grams

Pound lb 454grams

Stone st 6.3kilos, used for personal weight

HS77 – success, failure, difficult


An ambition: attain, realise, fulfil, achieve

A dream: realise, achieve

An agreement: reach, secure

An obligation: fulfil

A target: reach, attain, achieve

A compromise: reach, achieve

Falter = wankel
HS78 – Idioms and fixed expressions (general)

Do take the weight off your feet = sit down

Get the wrong end of the stick = being misunderstood

Pull a fast one = trick someone

Be over the moon = extremely happy

Feel down in the dumps = being depressed

Being as daft as a bush = zo gek als een deur

Taking the biscuit = is the worst of all

Make a meal out of everything = exaggerate

On the make = wanting money/power for oneself

Barking up the wrong tree = making a mistake

Pie in the sky = big promises that’ll never come true

A drop in the ocean = tiny amount compared to what’s needed

Dropping a clanger = said something inappropriate

Having enough on your plate = have more than enough

Flying of the handle = getting furious

Chip of the old block = just like the (grand)parents

A shot in the dark = a wild guess

Hit the sack = go to bed

Flies in the face = tegensprekend

Sitting pretty = je hebt het makkelijk

Leaves a lot to desire = dat er nog veel overblijft om aan te werken.

Be in a fix = have a serious problem

Be up to it = be capable of something

Be out of shorts = be unwell

Child’s play = very easy

A fool’s errand = a wasted pointless journey to get something

Hold your tongue = keep your mouth shut

Hold your horses = wait before acting/speaking

Stay mum = stay silent

Rough and ready = lacking in comfort

Odds and ends = small items difficult to group with others

Give or take = zo ongeveer

Give someone the cold shoulder = being mean

Once in a blue moon = infrequently
HS79 – everyday expressions

This that and the other = various unimportant matters

As luck would have it = by chance
HS80 – similes

As blind as a bat

As dead as a doornail

As thin as a rake

As strong as an ox

As quiet as a mouse

As Heavy as lead

As light as a feather

As drunk as a lord

As sober as a judge

As black as night

As white as snow

As brown as a berry

As good as gold

As cool as a cucumber

As busy as a bee

As hard as iron

Dry as a bone

As mad as hatter (hatter = hoedenmaker)

As bold as brass (brass = messing)

As deaf as a post

As easy as falling off a log

As quick as a flash

As red as a beetroot

As white as snow (beautifully white)

As white as a sheet (pale with fear/horror)

As sick as a dog (vomiting)

As sick as a parrot (not feeling well)

Worked like a dream

Has eyes like a hawk

Eats like a horse

Drinks like a fish

Sleep like a log

Brain like a sieve

Like a bear with a sore head (bad tempered)

Like a bull in a china shop (being clumsy)

Like a red rag to a bull (certain to make someone angry)

As flat as a pancake

As fresh as a daisy
HS81 – Binomials

Zie HS 81 (TEVEEL WERK!!!!)

HS82 – idioms describing people

Heart of gold = very kind and generous

As good as gold = generous/helpful/well behaved, usually used for children)

As hard as nails = no sympathy for others

Being a cold fish = distant/unfriendly

An awkward customer = difficult person to deal with

Quick off the mark = being fast

Slow off the mark = being slow

An odd-ball = peculiar, strange

Over the top = very exaggerated

Round the bend = absolutely crazy

Middle-of-the-road = very normal

One’s head screwed on = be sensible

A head for heights = not suffer from vertigo (duizeligheid)

A good head for figures = good at math

One’s head in the clouds = unaware of reality

A bit of a square peg in a round hole = past er niet bij
HS83 – idioms describing feelings or mood

On cloud nine = very happy

In high spirits = lively

As happy as the day is long = extremely content

A face as long as a fiddle = looking very sad

Looked down in the dumps = looking sad

In a (black) mood = in a bad temper

Feeling all in = exhausted

A bit under the weather = ill

At deaths door = being very sick

As fit as a fiddle = being very fit

To feel browned off = greatly annoyed

HS84 – Idioms describing problematic situations

to be in a fix =be in difficulty

to be in a tight corner = being in a situation which is hard to get out off

to be in a muddle = be confused

take a back seat = not doing anything, let others do it for you

take the bull by the horns = act positively to face and attack the problem

pour oil on troubled water = do/say things to calm the situation

keep one’s cards close to one’s chest = holding back information

to lay one’s cards on the table = be very open

get our act together = organise ourselves to respond

swept under the carpet = verborgen

let the cat out of the bag = geheimpje verklappen

think you’re the cat’s whiskers = think you’re wonderful

fight like cat and dog = fight furiously

there’s not enough room to swing a cat = very small room

pour cold water on an idea = een idée afkraken zodat anderen het niet meer willen

cause a stir = cause great excitement or anger

stir yourself = move yourself

stir fry = wokken

happy medium = compromise

on tenterhooks = under great suspense

toe the line = behave yourself

HS85 – Idioms connected with praise and criticism

Head and shoulder above = veel beter zijn

Knocks spots off = being much better

Dab-hand at = being good at something

Really on the ball = knows a lot

Has green fingers = good at gardening

Got the gift of the gab = good at talking

The bee’s knees = think you’re wonderful

Dog’s dinner = overdressed in a showy way

Dog’s breakfast = a mess

Wants to have her cake and eat it = wanting something without any contribution

Butter me up = slijmen

You want jam on it = Have totally unreasonable expectations/demands
HS86 - Idioms connected with using language

Talking at cross-purposes = misunderstanding each other’s purpose

Got the wrong end of the stick = misunderstanding something

Can’t get a word in edgeways = kan er geen word tussen krijgen

Talk shop = talk about work

Talking point = subjects which everyone wants to talk about

Give him a talking to = scolding

Long-winded = dodge the real point

HS87 – Miscellaneous idioms

Bought a pig in a poke = buy something without taking a good look at something

Pay over the odds = pay more than the usual rate

Foot the bill = pay up, usually a large amount

Drive a hard bargain = resist lowering the price

Pay trough the nose = to pay excessively

To get a finger in every pie = is involved In many different things

Made quite a bit of headway = made a jumpstart

Ready to crash out = be very tired
HS88 – proverb

Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched = Don’t anticipate the future too much

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket = don’t invest all your efforts or attention in just one thing

Never judge a book by its cover = don’t judge people or things by their outward appearance

Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves = take care of small sums of money and they will become large sums

You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink = you can try to persuade someone, but you can’t force them

Too many cooks spoil the broth (bouillon) = too many people interfering is a bad way of doing things

People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones = don’t criticise others’ fault if you suffer from them yourself

Many hands make light work = a lot of people helping makes a job easier

A bird in the hand is worth two birds in the bush = never look a gift-horse in the mouth

Absence makes the heart grow fonder = if you cannot be with someone or something, you’ll love/miss them more
HS89 - Expressions with do and make

Do out of = prevent from having (trough deceit)

HS90 – expressions with bring and take

Bring off = succeed

Bring on = cause to start

Brought about = cause to happen

Bring down = lower OR destroy by force

Bringing out = introducing

Bring round = persuade

Be brought into force = become law

Were brought to a head = reached a point where changes had to be made

Take after = resemble

Take in = absorb

Taken in = deceived

Taken off = starting to improve

Took off = left the ground

Taking off = imitating

Took to = formed an immediate liking for

Take up = start (a hobby)

Takes in her stride = copes calmly

To take control of = to be subordinate to
HS91 – expressions with get

Get dinner = prepare a meal

Get my own back = take my revenge
HS92 – expressions with set and put

Set out = begun work with a particular aim in mind

Put across = communicating to others

Put out = inconvenience

Put off = postpone

Putting up = raising

Set in her ways = fixed in her habits

To put someone’s back up = to irritate someone

HS93 – expressions with come and go

Come off = take place

Come off = succeed

Come to = an arrangement, a standstill, blows (start fighting)

Come into = a fortune, money, a legacy (nalatenschap), fashion

Make a go of = make a success of

Went to great lengths = took a lot of trouble
HS94 – Miscellaneous (overige) expressions

Looks down her nose at = op iemand neerkijken

Doing a good turn = did me a favour
HS95 – Formal and informal words

Quid = pound

Abode = residence

Cheerio = bye bye

Go amiss = go wrong

Spuds = potatoes

Ad/advert = abbreviation for advertisement

Swot = study hard

Ta! = thank you
HS96 – formal and informal words

Coppers = policemen

Sozzled = drunk

Pissed = drunk

Words for wonderful:

Pre-war = top-hole

1940s = wizard

1960s = fab/groovy

1970s = ace/cosmic

1980s = brill/wicked

1990s = cool/class
Slang for:

Money = dough/bread/dosh/loot/brass/readies

Police = pigs/fuzz/cop(pers)/bill

Drunk = pissed/pie-eyed/paralytic/legless/arseholed

Stupid person = wally/prat/wanker/jerk/dickhead/plonker/pillock/dork/clueless/out-to-lunch/doesn’t know his arse from his elbow

Lavatory = loo/lav/bog/john

Drink = booze/plonk(wine)/a bevvy

Drug-related = a fix/dope/grass/high/stoned/snow(heroine)

Prison-related = nick(prison)/nark(informer)/screw(warder)
Grandma lane = slow lane

Doughnuts = wheels

Eyeballs= headlights

Five finger discount = stolen goods

Anklebiter = children

Super cola = beer

Motion lotion = fuel

Geezer = man

Nosh = food

Gutted = very upset

Cuppa = koppie thee

Gobsmacked = amazed

Butcher’s = kijken naar

Gawd forbids = kids

Cain and abel = table

Hampstead heath = teeth

Lean and lurch = church

Titfer = hat

HS97 – US English

Zie blz 196/197

HS98 – Other Englishes


Milko = delivers the milk

Oz = Australia

Aussie = Australian

Mozzies = mosquitoes

Barbie = bbq

Bizzo = business

Arvo = afternoon

Olds = adults


Felicitated = gefeliciteerd

Bosom = boezem

Miscreant = Indian bandit

Abscond = flee

Nab = catch

Bag = capture

Eve-teaser = man who annoys girls

Car-lifter = car-thief

Fleetfoots = sneakers

Undertrials = people awaiting trials

Wearunders = underwear


Aye = yes

Loch = lake

Dreich = dull

Ben = mountain

To mind = to remember

Janitor = caretaker

Brae = bank of a river

Bairn = child

Lassie =girl

Dram = drink

Bonny = beautiful

Outwith = outside

Glen = valley

Burn = stream

Wee = small

Kirk = church

Stay = live

Ken = know
Black English

Pad = bed

Square = dull
HS99 – headline English

Bar = exclude/forbid

Bid = attempt

Curb = limit

Ordeal = painful experience

Oust = push out

Pledge = promise

Ploy = clever activity

Probe = investigation

Strife = conflict

HS100 – the language of signs and notices

Nothing interesting!

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