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Quality of the habitat in the Netherlands

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Quality of the habitat in the Netherlands



Datum16.07.2017
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Quality of the habitat in the Netherlands



In the Netherlands we assess the quality of the habitat (Structure & function) based on 4 components:

  • Vegetation type

  • Typical species

  • Abiotic conditions

  • Other features of Structure and Function

The four parts of Quality of the habitat should be taken together when assessing the quality.

1.Vegetation type


As part of the definition, based on the information of the interpretation manual, we made a list of vegetation types according to national classification (Schaminée et al. 1995-1999) that are part of the habitat type. In these vegetations a distinction is made between vegetation types that represent “good” or “moderate” quality of the habitat. This is only an indicator of the quality of the vegetation, not of fauna. The “good” vegetation types are typical, more bio divers or rare vegetations , the “moderate” vegetation sites are more modified vegetations (but still worthy of the habitat type) or vegetation types that form only a small part of the habitat and need to occur in combination with “good” habitat types.

The ratio between “good” and “moderate” habitat types is part of the assessment of the quality of the habitat.


2.Abiotic conditions


The abiotic conditions give the conditions of the environment that are best for the vegetation types that are part of the habitat type. They are based on scientific research and are valid at the national level. Depending on local circumstances the values may vary in a particular site. The information on vegetation types gives an indication of the environmental needs of the habitat at a national level.
For every vegetation type of the habitat type the following habitat conditions are used:

  • acidity

  • moisture

  • salinity

  • level of eutrophy

  • tolerance of inundation

  • mean lowest ground water level

For aquatic habitat types also quantitative information on nutrient content is used to make the connection with the Water Framework Directive.
To assess the possibilities for restoration or the effect of external influences the total of the abiotic conditions is to be taken into account.

3.Typical species


The Netherlands distinguishes two types of typical species:

  1. exclusive and characteristic species: species that occur only (or mostly) in the habitat type (E and K);

  2. constant species: species that always occur in the habitat, but may also occur elsewhere (C); Ca means that the species is an indicator for good abiotic circumstances, Cb species indicate a good biotic structure.



4.Other features of Structure and Function


Other biotic, abiotic and landscape features.

Such as:


  • Coverage of species (functional) groups (mosses, grasses, shrubs, annual species);

  • Water quality, (clearness, phosphate), depth and dynamics;

  • Dynamic processes (sedimentation and erosion, change in water level, wind)

  • Location within the landscape;

  • minimum area (standard 100 m2, H6110 and H7220:10 m2 and forests 1.000 m2 (= 0,1 hectare).

  • Etc.

This means we have large lists of vegetation types and typical species ánd a standard table for abiotic conditions for each habitat. By this structure these first three parts cannot be filled in in the table of structure and function started up by Finland. These parts are constant factors in the assesment of the quality, so they have to be looked at separately. Only tart 4, “other features” could be inserted in the table.


In Annex I an example of the paragraphs “definition” and “quality of the habitat” from a “profile” is given (in Dutch) to illustrate the way we present it. More profiles can be found at http://www.synbiosys.alterra.nl/natura2000/gebiedendatabase.aspx?subj=profielen

In Annex II a translation of “other features of structure and function” of several habitats is giving (it is going to take too much time to do them all right now).




Annex 1: example of description of quality of the habitat in “Profielendocument”


H6410 Blauwgraslanden

3. Definitie
Vegetatietypen

Niet tot het habitattype gerekend worden rompgemeenschappen op hoger niveau dan het verbond, bijvoorbeeld met dominantie van Moerasstruisgras (Agrostis canina), Pijpenstrootje (Molinia caerulea), veenmos (Sphagnum sp.) of Hennegras (Calamagrostis canescens).




Code vegetatie-type

Nederlandse naam vegetatietype

wetenschappelijke naam vegetatietype

Goed/

Matig

beperkende criteria

alleen in mozaïek

16Aa1

Blauwgrasland

Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum

G

mits niet voldoend aan de criteria voor H7230

 

16Ab1

Veldrus-associatie

Crepido-Juncetum acutiflori

G

mits minstens drie van de volgende plantensoorten aanwezig zijn: blauwe knoop, blauwe zegge, gevlekte orchis, ruw walstro, tormentil, veelbloemige veldbies

 

16-RG5-[16Aa]

Rompgemeenschap met Blauwe zegge en Blauwe knoop van het Verbond van Biezeknoppen en Pijpestrootje

RG Carex panicea-Succisa pratensis-[Junco-Molinion]

M

mits niet in mozaïek met vegetaties van H7230

 

28Aa1

Draadgentiaan-associatie

Cicendietum filiformis

G

 

alleen in mozaïek met zelfstandige vegetaties van H6410

SBB-16A-b

RG Kussentjesmos-[Verbond van Biezenknoppen en Pijpestrootje]

RG Leucobryum glaucum-[Junco-Molinion]

M

 

alleen in mozaïek met zelfstandige vegetaties van H6410

SBB-16A-c

RG Moerasstruisgras-[Verbond van Biezenknoppen en Pijpestrootje]

RG Agrostis canina-[Junco-Molinion]

M

 

alleen in mozaïek met zelfstandige vegetaties van H6410

SBB-16A-e

RG Pijpestrootje-Veenmos-[Klasse der kleine Zeggen/Verbond van Biezenknoppen en Pijpestrootje]

RG Molinia caerulea-Sphagnum palustre-[Parvocaricetea/Junco-Molinion]

M

 

alleen in mozaïek met zelfstandige vegetaties van H6410

SBB-16A-f

RG Veldrus-Veenmos-[Verbond van Biezenknoppen en Pijpestrootje]

RG Juncus acutiflorus-Sphagnum-[Junco-Molinion]

M

 

alleen in mozaïek met zelfstandige vegetaties van H6410


4. Kwaliteitseisen habitattype
a. Abiotische randvoorwaarden

Zuurgraad

basisch

neutraal-a

neutraal-b

zwak

zuur-a


zwak zuur-b

matig

zuur-a


matig

zuur-b


zuur-a

zuur-b




Vochttoestand

diep water

ondiep permanent water

ondiep droog-vallend water

’s winters inunderend

zeer nat

nat

zeer vochtig

vochtig

matig droog

droog




Zoutgehalte

zeer zoet

(matig) zoet

zwak brak

licht brak

matig brak

sterk brak

Zout




Voedselrijkdom

zeer voedselarm

matig voedselarm

licht voedselrijk

matig voedselrijk-a

matig voedselrijk-b

zeer voedselrijk

uiterst voedselrijk




Overstromings-tolerantie

dagelijks lang

dagelijks kort

regelmatig

incidenteel

niet



b. Typische soorten

Nederlandse naam

Wetenschappelijke naam

Soortgroep

Categorie1

Moerasparelmoervlinder

Euphydryas aurinia ssp. aurinia

Dagvlinders

K *

Zilveren maan

Boloria selene

Dagvlinders

K

Blauwe knoop

Succisa pratensis

Vaatplanten

Ca

Blauwe zegge

Carex panicea

Vaatplanten

Ca

Blonde zegge

Carex hostiana

Vaatplanten

K

Klein glidkruid

Scutellaria minor

Vaatplanten

K

Kleine valeriaan

Valeriana dioica

Vaatplanten

K

Knotszegge

Carex buxbaumii

Vaatplanten

K

Kranskarwij

Carum verticillatum

Vaatplanten

K

Melkviooltje

Viola persicifolia

Vaatplanten

E

Spaanse ruiter

Cirsium dissectum

Vaatplanten

E

Vlozegge

Carex pulicaris

Vaatplanten

K

Watersnip

Gallinago gallinago ssp. gallinago

Vogels

Cab

* verdwenen
c. Kenmerken van een goede structuur en functie

  • Hooibeheer (jaarlijks laat in het jaar maaien en materiaal afvoeren);

  • Toevoer van basenrijk water (door overstromingen met oppervlaktewater of door toestroom grondwater);

  • Opslag van struwelen en bomen < 5%;

  • Optimale functionele omvang: vanaf enkele hectares;

  • Het zo nu en dan opbrengen van organisch materiaal kan noodzakelijk zijn om verzuring tegen te gaan.

Annex II: other features of good structure and function.



H1310

  • Coverage of perennial species < 10 %;

  • Occurrence in coherence with H1330, H1140 and H1160 or with dunes;

  • Minimum area >hundreds of m2.


H1320

  • Occurrence in coherence with H1330, H1140, 1130 and H1160;

  • Minimum area >hundreds of m2


H1330

  • Complete zone from lower salt marshes (adjacent to H1310 and H1320) to higher parts and if possible to dunes;

  • Within larger slat marshes: no abundance (> 40 %) or absence (< 5 %) of one zone or of a climax vegetation with Atriplex portulacoides, Elytrigia atherica or Phragmitis autralis;

  • Variation in structure by grazing (hare, geese and/or cattle);

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H2110


H2120

  • Shifting sands;

  • irregular vegetation structure;

  • Bare sand in between the vegetation;

  • Irregular relief;

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H2130

  • Low vegetation (<50 cm);

  • No or hardly any shoots of shrubs (< 25%);

  • Grazing by rabbits (constant species);

  • Bare places with soil material;

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H2160

  • Few exotic species (like Prunus serotina);

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H2170

  • Minimum area >hundreds of m2


H2190

  • No or hardly any shoots of shrubs and trees (< 10%);

  • Low coverage of higher grasses (e.g. Calamagrostis epigeios): < 10%;

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3110

  • Water levels vary strongly in time;

  • Central part of the system most of the year under water;

  • Mineral soil;

  • No or few Spagnum or mosses (< 20%);

  • Open landscape (influence of wind);

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3130

  • Water levels vary in time;

  • Sandy or peaty soil;

  • No or few Spagnum (< 20%);

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3140

  • Dominance of submerged water plant with fine leaves;

  • Clear water (at least view to half of the depth);

  • Good water quality (no pollution, not too much phosphate);

  • pH > 6.0;

  • Coverage bottom surface 30% over at least 70 % of the water body;

  • Minimum area >hundreds of m2.


H3150

  • Dominance of submerged and floating water plant with fine leaves;

  • Clear water (at least view to half of the depth);

  • Still water

  • Good water quality (no pollution, not too much phosphate);

  • Moderate eutrophic;

  • Organic matter on bottom of water

  • Hard water

  • Depth of the water > 0,8 m;

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3160

  • Dystrofic and acid water (brownish by humus acids);

  • Combination of open water and succession form open water to marshes;

  • Plant layer, if present, dominated by Cyperaceae;

  • Moss layer, if present, dominated by Sphagnum species;

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3260

  • Clear water

  • For small rivers: not too deep (to make growth of submerged water plants in spring possible) and few variation in water level;

  • In larger rivers: the least dynamic parts

  • (Slowly to fast) flowing water;

  • Low phosphate levels

  • Hydrological intact catchment area;

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H3270

  • Open vegetation;

  • Coverage of perennial species < 10 %;

  • Highly dynamic parts of river system with regular sedimentation of soil material;

  • Inundation in winter, but not in summer;

  • Broad, flat banks

  • Minimum area >hundreds of m2


H4010

  • Dominance of dwarf shrubs (> 50%);

  • Coverage of shrubs and trees low: < 10%;

  • Coverage of grasses low: < 25%;

  • Coverage of Sphagnum high;

  • High biodiversity in mosses and lichens;

  • Little variation in water level (not too dry);

  • Minimum area > several hectares.


H4030

  • Dominance of dwerf shrubs (> 50%);

  • Presence of high, older heath shrubs;

  • Varied vegetation structuur;

  • Coverage of shrubs low: < 10%;

  • Coverage of grasses low: < 25%;

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H6110

  • Flat rock on the upper edge of chalk faces (e.g in limestone quarries);

  • Varied structure of plant layer;

  • High coverage of mosses (> 30%);

  • Much open space (>30%);

  • Exposed with much sun shine (south faced);

  • Minimum area >tens of m2



H91D0



  • Forming of peat

  • Presence of old, big living or dead trees and/or old coppice trunks;

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H91E0

  • Periodic inundation with water from river or stream;

  • Tidal influence (only in fresh water tidal landscape);

  • Dominance of Salix, Populus nigra, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus or Alnus glutinosa;

  • Coverage of exotic species < 5%;

  • Varied forest structure with mixed species composition;

  • Many epiphytic species;

  • Presence of old, big living or dead trees and/or old coppice trunks;

  • Many flowers in spring (along brooks);

  • Active coppice maintenance (in cultivated types);

  • Presence of seepage or wells (along brooks);

  • Relatively eutrophic soils;

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.


H91F0

  • Many hardwood species;

  • Varied vegetation structure with high coverage of shrub layer (> 30%);

  • Presence of old, big living or dead trees and/or old coppice trunks;

  • Many bulbous plants in spring;

  • Occasional inundation (< 10 days a year);

  • On relatively high parts in the winter bed of the river: on sedimentation banks, old river dunes and on the gradient to higher sand landscape.

  • Soil sandy of clay, mostly calcareous

  • Minimum area > ten of hectares.




1 Ca = constante soort goede abiotische toestand; Cb = constante soort goede biotische structuur; Cab = constante soort goede abiotische toestand en goede biotische structuur; K = karakteristieke soort; E = exclusieve soort

  • 1.Vegetation type
  • 2.Abiotic conditions
  • 3.Typical species
  • 4.Other features of Structure and Function
  • Annex 1: example of description of quality of the habitat in “Profielendocument”
  • Annex II: other features of good structure and function.

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