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Questions chapter 7: pioneers! O pioneers! The Story of English

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Questions chapter 7: pioneers! O pioneers! The Story of English



Datum07.06.2017
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QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7: PIONEERS! O PIONEERS!

- The Story of English -



  1. What is odd about many early ‘Americanisms’?http://www.archimuse.com/mw2007/papers/fisher/fisher.fig1.jpg

  2. Why were Americans and British such rivals?

  3. How did the Revolution help speed up the language differences?

  4. What did Thomas Jefferson mean when he spoke of ‘judicious neologism’?

  5. What kind of person was Benjamin Franklin and whom did he influence?

  6. Use the map below to sketch from memory the five American English regions in different colours:

  7. Why, despite all the opposition, was it reasonable that the new American chose English as its language?http://geography.about.com/library/blank/usa2.jpg

  8. What did John Adams foresee for the future of American English?

  9. Why did Noah Webster start writing books about the language? In what way did his early speller enable him to write his famous dictionary?

  10. How did the use of Webster’s speller promote a clear enunciation in speaking American English?

  11. How does Webster’s dictionary compare with that of Samuel Johnson and how did it fail to make Webster rich? What is the clearest sign of Webster’s enduring influence?

  12. Mention a few ‘Websterish’ differences in spelling of English words…

  13. Mention a few characteristics that all speakers of American English seem to share.

  14. Explain how the arrival of a flood of immigrants helped to ‘level’ American English.

  15. Who were the ‘Ontario Loyalists’ and how were they important in the story of Canadian English?

  16. Why is it remarkable that Canadian English has retained a number of national characteristics at all?

  17. How can one mainly distinguish Canadian speakers from American speakers of English?

  18. How many words seem to have a Canadian origin? Mention a few.

  19. What is Canadian raising and which sound changes how because of it?

  20. What did the phrase ‘Go West’ originally mean?

  21. How was the Mississippi important for the ‘West’ for a long time?

  22. Mention at least five words, phrases or sayings that come from life on the Mississippi.

  23. What can be concluded from the many gambling terms and phrases that have entered American English?

  24. What is the origin of the very much alive term ‘bootleg’?

  25. What did ‘to have seen the elephant’ mean to the 49ers? Who were they?

  26. Who was the real ‘real McCoy’ and what did he do to become a phrase in the language?

  27. Who was Buffalo Bill? How did he ‘peddle the cowboy myth’?

  28. What is a ‘whistle stop tour’ and when are you ‘riding the gravy train’?

  29. Fill in words, phrases and sayings from the three sources mentioned in the top row in this grid:

    Gold rush



    Cowboys

    Railroads


    Words








    Phrases








    Sayings








  30. Why is Mark Twain so important to both American literature and American English?

  31. What are his two most famous books?

  32. Why is his explanatory note for one of those books called ‘interesting’ here?

  33. Mention a few influences of German on American English.

  34. What may be the original meaning of the derogatory term ‘wop’?

  35. What is ‘Yinglish’? Give a few examples.

  36. Who was H.L. Mencken and what is his role in the history of American English? What does he have to say about American English and Standard English? Do you agree with him? Explain.



Days of ‘49

I'm old Tom Moore from the bummer's shore


In the good old golden days.
They call me a bummer and a gin sot, too
But what cares I for praise?
I wander around from town to town
Just like a roving sign,
And all the people say "There goes Tom Moore,
In the days of '49."

In the days of old, in the days of gold,


How oftentimes I repine
For the days of old
When we dug up the gold,
In the days of '49.

My comrades they all loved me well,


A jolly saucy crew.
A few hard cases I will recall
Though they all were brave and true.
Whatever the pinch they never would flinch,
They never would fret or whine.
Like good old bricks they stood the kicks
In the days of '49.

There was New York Jake, the butcher's boy,


He was always getting tight.
And every time that he'd get booked (?)
He was spoiling for a fight.
Then Jake rampaged against a knife
In the hands of old Bob Syne,
And over Jake they held a wake
In the days of '49.
There was Poker Bill, one of the boys
Who was always in a game,
Whether he lost or whether he won,
To him it was always the same.
He would ante up and draw his cards
And he would you go hatful blind.
In a game with death, Bill lost his breath
In the days of '49.





New Words and phrases in American English
From Indian languages

chipmunk, hickory, howl, moccasin, moose, opossum, papoose, pemmican, pow-wow, raccoon, skunk, tomahawk, totem, wigwam


Puzzle: find the Indian words listed above:
N H R E I L A E M F T P R E D C O Y L H W O F I
R I O Q N M O V S K X E O A I A Z Y I L G P M C
W T Z T S T I E T E S Q D W T X Z R W M H I J K
H F I P L N E G H E S O K D F C I N S C E U E S
F N Z P G O G A R E F E I A R M R O L P Z N E T
P N R E S L T G M J U A A S P E S S C R D F B K
P L F R B B T I D T D P T D T F F P A F H E G D
Z E I H A C O S S M C F M R A E E Q X T I A R I
E S J Y S E C S E C F O O S O M E O E T Q L Y E
N S P L T H D G R P O R E I O E V O Q N J F J O
E S I P N W D N R S M S T O I T N G C H Z N S L
S A F S P I M M Z I U K S R I I R S Q H D S M O
A Q N E X P A P O O S E W O S L M P X M E T F O
C E H R O W X Y L B S G E A O S R B K E M T Y R
A R O E G G M Z Y R O K C I H R O A T P L C T A
Q S H I S W O W W O P C R H A A L W O H A W L B
H M W E O V X M S N O N A C I M M E P I B I E E
E E L T A W R H D M N O C Z E P F O S V T F J R
N M C B I U U E O S V O O T S M M E T O O E O Y
S P S F E O L O U B O A O N A K N U K S E E I Y
A G P P H K O I R N J T R T V C I A N K I L R A
S S S N S F P U S D F A D Q V C V T N K P Q S K
H S L S Y E Q S N T D R Q K N S T S D M E E C T
E S T Z S I A S H O T T P C Z E O D B H U F K E



  • New Words and phrases in American English From Indian languages

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