The desert scrubland outside Phoenix, and Christopher Gingerich’s
hands shake with cold as he eats a meagre breakfast in his tent. A single overhead heater barely
penetrates the cold air, while thin prison clothes offer little warmth for Gingerich, 16, and his fellow teenagers as they huddle together eating a slop of powdered eggs.
2 Dressed in black and
white stripes and pink undergarments they look almost comical. But there is no laughter from the
group of solitary campers. Last month they became the first juveniles in America forced into a tented jail. Soon they could become the first to form a chain gang.
3 ‘The cold nights are just
the start,’ said Gingerich, after his dawn ritual of exercise followed by a freezing shower. ‘There’s no tolerance in here. You make one mistake and they lock you up 23 hours a day. Then it’s the chain
4 The crimes committed by
the young prisoners range from attempted murder to burglary and from rape to sexual assault. But most would say their biggest
mistake was to commit a crime in the jurisdiction of Joe Arpaio, a man who is known to all as the
meanest sheriff in America.
5 He has justifiably earned
the title. Arpaio, 66, who runs the third largest sheriff’s office in the country, says he operates on a simple philosophy: “Nobody should live better in prison than
they do outside.”
6 His tent cities were set up
in 1993 to save money and relieve the crowded jails. First there were 1,200 men. Then came 200 women, and now the first batch of juveniles in what Arpaio calls the ‘pups’ tents’.
7 ‘I could say that what I do
is all about saving taxpayers’ money,’ he said. ‘But this is about
punishment, and I want juveniles who commit crimes to realize that they will be treated no differently than adults.’
8 Arpaio’s methods are
legendary. He already runs the only female chain gang in the country.
The introduction of pink underwear was another means to embarrass the young inmates.
9 Coffee and cigarettes, the
staples of almost every American and British jail, are banned. Other luxuries and entertainment are equally scarce. Donald Duck cartoons, Lassie films and a weather channel are broadcast
on a single television set.
10 The only concession to
age is a series of portable buildings in which the young prisoners spend
at least four hours each day. Known as Hard Knocks High, these cabins offer education to
high school standard. The sheriff also provides computers and desks.
11 Outside there are no
such frills. The tents are surrounded by 12ft high fences topped with barbed wire. German shepherd
dogs equipped with collar cameras patrol the area 24 hours a day to ensure that nobody leaves his tent without authorisation. Arpaio even proudly assures visitors that he spends more each day on dog meat than he does on prison food.
12 A neon vacancy sign
blinks all night above the tents, another icon of Arpaio’s culture of humiliation.
13 Made possible by state
legislation that allows 14 to 17-yearolds to be convicted as adults, the
claims Arpaio’s harsh justice merits a ‘Nobel Prize’ for cruelty.
14 Arpaio’s opponents are
convinced the teen tents won’t work: ‘The more repressive you get with
juveniles, the more you reverse the process of rehabilitation,’ said Malcolm Klein, a Professor of sociology at the University of
15 Sheriff Joe has been
elected twice by at least 90% of the voters of Maricopa County. He
ignores the criticism. ‘It’s all rubbish,’he said. “People set you up and then they try to knock you
down. Ask the parents of these young criminals what they think.’
16 Kim Gingerich has yet
to visit her son in the tent city. She is almost convinced that Christopher is without hope of rehabilitation.
He has moved from detention centre to halfway house, finally
being charged as an adult after he broke probation and ran away from home. ‘I just pray these tents are bad enough - I really do,’ she said. ‘I can’t bear to see him suffer, but Christopher’s been outsmarting the system for so long, it’s what he needs.’
‘The Sunday Times’
1 What are the first two paragraphs about?
A About a miserable camping excursion for young criminals.
B About very old-fashioned and uncomfortable prison buildings for young criminals.
C About young prisoners whose living conditions are unusually tough.
2 Hieronder staan vier beweringen over de gevangenen.
Geef van elk van de beweringen aan of deze juist of onjuist is volgens alinea 3.
1 Ze beginnen de dag met gymnastiek en een douche.
2 Ze verzetten zich tegen de strenge regels.
3 Ze worden zwaar gestraft voor iedere misstap.
4 Ze zitten 23 uur per dag alleen opgesloten.
Noteer het nummer van iedere uitspraak op je antwoordblad gevolgd door ‘juist’ of
3Citeer de uitspraak van Arpaio die aangeeft waarom hij alle gevangenen zo hard
aanpakt volgens alinea 1 t/m 7.
Schrijf de eerste twee en de laatste twee woorden op.
4 What could ‘But this is’ in ‘But this is about punishment,’ (paragraph 7) be replaced by?
A But I don’t need their money; this is …
B But that is not the point; this is …
C But that would be illegal; this is …
D But the taxpayer has no say in the matter; this is …
5 Welke combinatie van woorden uit alinea 10 vat de belangrijkste informatie uit die alinea samen?
A concession to age – education
B concession to age – young prisoners
C computers and desks – education
D computers and desks – portable buildings
6 Geef van elk van de onderstaande vier beweringen aan of ze juist of onjuist zijn
volgens alinea 11.
1 Arpaio heeft liever met honden dan met mensen te maken.
2 De bewakingshonden liggen de hele dag voor de ingang van de tent.
3 De gevangenen krijgen voedsel te eten dat eigenlijk hondenvoer is.
Noteer het nummer van iedere uitspraak op je antwoordblad gevolgd door ‘juist’ of
7 Wat is de kritiek van tegenstanders op de methode van Arpaio volgens alinea 4?
Leg je antwoord uit. 8 What does Kim Gingerich think about Arpaio’s method according to paragraph 16?
A She hopes it will finally help her son change his life.
B She is convinced that it will make criminals more hardened.
C She thinks it is far too hard on her son.
D She wonders whether it isn’t more suitable for adults.
Student may be charged for smelly hair
HALIFAX, Canada – A Halifax-area teenager may face criminal charges for wearing
Dippity Do hair gel and Aqua Velva deodorant to school after his teacher complained
about his ‘fragrant abuse’ of the school’s no-scent policy.
Gary Falkenham, 17, has been suspended twice from Duncan MacMillan High
5 School in Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia, for 5 violating the school’s strict policy banning
perfumes, aftershaves and scented hairsprays and deodorants. Last month, he was forced to stay home for two days. His latest violation led his teacher, Tanya MacDonald (who is asthmatic) to launch a formal complaint with the police. “If her reaction was severe enough you could actually even look at a possible assault
10 charge2),” Constable Scott Manning said.
The school’s strict policy is designed to prevent scented products from bothering
area,” Manning said. “You can’t let your teachers become ill because of it, but it’s also a difficult thing to prove and a lot of kids, I think, don’t see the seriousness of it.”
15 Meanwhile, Gary’s mother, Shelley Falkenham, thinks calling police over the
breaking of a scent rule is ridiculous. “The boy cares about his hygiene and he’s being punished for it.” She was called to the police station last month to discuss a complaint filed against her son because of his smell. “I just looked at the police officer and said: ‘Are you serious?’”
The formal policy was brought in at the start of this year after two years of trying in
20 vain to get the 275 students at the rural school to follow the rules willingly, said
Tate, the vice-principal. A student caught wearing smelly deodorant or other body
products is given a warning the first two times and sent to wash off the offending
fragrance. A third violation results in a suspension from school. As many as 10 students have been suspended this year, Tate said.
25 The majority of schools around Halifax have some sort of scent policy, joining public
buildings and a growing number of private companies that are banning strong smells in the city. A few schools in Ontario have joined the crusade as well. A school in Stratford, Ontario, has a ban on scented products, and Peel District School Board, one of Canada’s largest, has run awareness campaigns that tell students: “No scents is good sense.”
Halifax Daily News
noot 2 assault charge (a legal term): if somebody is ‘charged with assault’ it means he is accused of
having attacked a person violently
9 What made Tanya MacDonald (line 7) launch a complaint with the police?
A One of her students had threatened to beat her up.
B One of her students had used perfumed products.
C She wanted to force the school board to take action against smelly students.
D She wanted to stop the trade in imitation perfumes at her school.
10 From lines 15-18 you can conclude that Gary’s mother finds it hard to believe that
A people make such a fuss about scent.
B someone actually complained that her son did not wash properly.
C the police accused her of encouraging her son’s behaviour.
D the police refuse to listen to her arguments.
11 Paulette Tate geeft in regel 19 en 20 aan dat men er niet in geslaagd is de studenten te laten meewerken.
In welke regel in alinea 1 tot en met 3 (regels 1-14) wordt al eerder een reden
genoemd waarom studenten niet meewerken?
Schrijf het regelnummer op. 12 What becomes clear from lines 25-29 about the scent problem?
A It is not only schools that have to deal with the scent issue.
B Many students have asked for clearer regulations on the use of scented products.
C Most schools have decided to introduce an even stricter scent policy than before.
THE GIFT OF LIFE
PEOPLE NEED A
TRANSPLANT TO SAVE OR IMPROVE
THEIR LIVES. WOULD YOU BACK A SYSTEM
THAT AUTOMATICALLY ALLOWS YOUR ORGANS TO BE DONATED AFTER YOUR DEATH?
1 The idea of donating organs is
probably something most people don’t
like to give much thought. Who wants to think about what will happen to their
to go abroad to buy organs on the black market. Last December police
uncovered an organ trafficking gang,
which involved buying organs from poor people in Brazil for $10,000 and selling them for transplant in South Africa, for around $120,000. Kidneys from live donors are also traded illegally. The reason for the crisis is simple: not enough people have registered to donate, according to Mr Chris Rudge, kidney transplant surgeon at The Royal London Hospital. ‘There’s always been a shortage, which is ..14.. because transplant surgery is so successful. We know that 90 per cent of people would be willing to donate. They just don’t join the NHS Organ Donor Register.’
3 Another stumbling block is that when
grieving relatives are approached about the prospect of donating the organs of their loved ones, they usually refuse. ‘I don’t know why relatives say no,’ says Mr Rudge, ‘I’m worried that there might be a lack of trust between patients and doctors.’
permission for research purposes, have certainly done little to reassure the public. The case of former footballer George Best’s excessive drinking, after he had his liver transplant, certainly has not helped people to decide to donate either!
5 Perhaps it’s a question of showing
people what donation can mean. One
person’s death can save and improve
the lives of more than ten other people.
A heart transplant can save one life, and lung transplants save two more. The liver can be split, saving two more lives. Success rates are excellent: nine out of ten patients will lead healthy lives for years.
overrule you after your death. A new law is going through Parliament to change this, so that the wishes of the individual are decisive. We should ask ourselves, would we want a transplant if we were critically ill? If the answer’s 'Yes' then surely we must be willing to do the same for others.
13 Why do so few people in the UK register as donors, according to paragraphs 1
A Most people are very much against donating their organs.
B Most people do not take the trouble to have themselves registered as donors.
C People can make a lot of money by selling their organs.
14 Kies bij de open plek in alinea 2 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven
15 What do the examples about Alder Hey hospital and George Best in paragraph 4
want to make clear?
These examples explain why
A alcohol and donating organs for transplantation do not go together.
B children’s organs are not suitable for transplantation.
C many people have their doubts about donating their organs.
D organ donation is an important issue for everyone.
16 ‘it’s a question of showing people what donation can mean’ (alinea 5)
Leg uit wat de schrijver mensen duidelijk wil maken.
17 What message did a phone call bring Deborah Duval? (paragraph 6)
A She would meet her donor’s family.
B She would receive another kidney.
C There was nothing wrong with her kidney.
18 ‘A new law is going through Parliament to change this’ (paragraph 7)
What does the word ‘this’ refer to?
A people refusing to register as organ donors
B the donor’s family preventing the donation
C the giving of organs to people who have not registered
D the selling of organs on the black market
Ruled by the politics of the playground
Anybody who was ever called unkind names at school must be gasping with
astonishment this weekend at the news that the Crown Prosecution Service
(CPS) has thought fit to bring criminal charges against a 10-year-old who is said
to have called an 11-year-old schoolmate a “Paki” and “Bin Laden” in the