Sheriff with a mission doles out rough justice

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Texts on Politics
Text 1

Sheriff with a mission

doles out rough justice

by Tom Rhodes


1 THE mornings are icy in

The desert scrubland outside Phoenix, and Christopher Gingerich’s

hands shake with cold as he eats a meagre breakfast in his tent. A single overhead heater barely

penetrates the cold air, while thin prison clothes offer little warmth for Gingerich, 16, and his fellow teenagers as they huddle together eating a slop of powdered eggs.

2 Dressed in black and

white stripes and pink undergarments they look almost comical. But there is no laughter from the

group of solitary campers. Last month they became the first juveniles in America forced into a tented jail. Soon they could become the first to form a chain gang.

3 ‘The cold nights are just

the start,’ said Gingerich, after his dawn ritual of exercise followed by a freezing shower. ‘There’s no tolerance in here. You make one mistake and they lock you up 23 hours a day. Then it’s the chain


4 The crimes committed by

the young prisoners range from attempted murder to burglary and from rape to sexual assault. But most would say their biggest

mistake was to commit a crime in the jurisdiction of Joe Arpaio, a man who is known to all as the

meanest sheriff in America.

5 He has justifiably earned

the title. Arpaio, 66, who runs the third largest sheriff’s office in the country, says he operates on a simple philosophy: “Nobody should live better in prison than

they do outside.”

6 His tent cities were set up

in 1993 to save money and relieve the crowded jails. First there were 1,200 men. Then came 200 women, and now the first batch of juveniles in what Arpaio calls the ‘pups’ tents’.

7 ‘I could say that what I do

is all about saving taxpayers’ money,’ he said. ‘But this is about

punishment, and I want juveniles who commit crimes to realize that they will be treated no differently than adults.’

8 Arpaio’s methods are

legendary. He already runs the only female chain gang in the country.

The introduction of pink underwear was another means to embarrass the young inmates.

9 Coffee and cigarettes, the

staples of almost every American and British jail, are banned. Other luxuries and entertainment are equally scarce. Donald Duck cartoons, Lassie films and a weather channel are broadcast

on a single television set.

10 The only concession to

age is a series of portable buildings in which the young prisoners spend

at least four hours each day. Known as Hard Knocks High, these cabins offer education to

high school standard. The sheriff also provides computers and desks.

11 Outside there are no

such frills. The tents are surrounded by 12ft high fences topped with barbed wire. German shepherd

dogs equipped with collar cameras patrol the area 24 hours a day to ensure that nobody leaves his tent without authorisation. Arpaio even proudly assures visitors that he spends more each day on dog meat than he does on prison food.

12 A neon vacancy sign

blinks all night above the tents, another icon of Arpaio’s culture of humiliation.

13 Made possible by state

legislation that allows 14 to 17-yearolds to be convicted as adults, the

first juvenile tents have provoked fierce protests from civil rights activists. Amnesty International

claims Arpaio’s harsh justice merits a ‘Nobel Prize’ for cruelty.

14 Arpaio’s opponents are

convinced the teen tents won’t work: ‘The more repressive you get with

juveniles, the more you reverse the process of rehabilitation,’ said Malcolm Klein, a Professor of sociology at the University of

Southern California.’

15 Sheriff Joe has been

elected twice by at least 90% of the voters of Maricopa County. He

ignores the criticism. ‘It’s all rubbish,’he said. “People set you up and then they try to knock you

down. Ask the parents of these young criminals what they think.’

16 Kim Gingerich has yet

to visit her son in the tent city. She is almost convinced that Christopher is without hope of rehabilitation.

He has moved from detention centre to halfway house, finally

being charged as an adult after he broke probation and ran away from home. ‘I just pray these tents are bad enough - I really do,’ she said. ‘I can’t bear to see him suffer, but Christopher’s been outsmarting the system for so long, it’s what he needs.’

The Sunday Times’

1 What are the first two paragraphs about?

A About a miserable camping excursion for young criminals.

B About very old-fashioned and uncomfortable prison buildings for young criminals.

C About young prisoners whose living conditions are unusually tough.
2 Hieronder staan vier beweringen over de gevangenen.

Geef van elk van de beweringen aan of deze juist of onjuist is volgens alinea 3.

1 Ze beginnen de dag met gymnastiek en een douche.

2 Ze verzetten zich tegen de strenge regels.

3 Ze worden zwaar gestraft voor iedere misstap.

4 Ze zitten 23 uur per dag alleen opgesloten.

Noteer het nummer van iedere uitspraak op je antwoordblad gevolgd door ‘juist’ of


3Citeer de uitspraak van Arpaio die aangeeft waarom hij alle gevangenen zo hard

aanpakt volgens alinea 1 t/m 7.

Schrijf de eerste twee en de laatste twee woorden op.
4 What could ‘But this is’ in ‘But this is about punishment,’ (paragraph 7) be replaced by?

A But I don’t need their money; this is …

B But that is not the point; this is …

C But that would be illegal; this is …

D But the taxpayer has no say in the matter; this is …

5 Welke combinatie van woorden uit alinea 10 vat de belangrijkste informatie uit die alinea samen?

A concession to age – education

B concession to age – young prisoners

C computers and desks – education

D computers and desks – portable buildings
6 Geef van elk van de onderstaande vier beweringen aan of ze juist of onjuist zijn

volgens alinea 11.

1 Arpaio heeft liever met honden dan met mensen te maken.

2 De bewakingshonden liggen de hele dag voor de ingang van de tent.

3 De gevangenen krijgen voedsel te eten dat eigenlijk hondenvoer is.

4 Omheiningen en honden met camera’s om hun nek maken ontsnappen bijna


Noteer het nummer van iedere uitspraak op je antwoordblad gevolgd door ‘juist’ of


7 Wat is de kritiek van tegenstanders op de methode van Arpaio volgens alinea 4?

Leg je antwoord uit.
8 What does Kim Gingerich think about Arpaio’s method according to paragraph 16?

A She hopes it will finally help her son change his life.

B She is convinced that it will make criminals more hardened.

C She thinks it is far too hard on her son.

D She wonders whether it isn’t more suitable for adults.
Text 2

Student may be charged for smelly hair

HALIFAX, Canada – A Halifax-area teenager may face criminal charges for wearing

Dippity Do hair gel and Aqua Velva deodorant to school after his teacher complained

about his ‘fragrant abuse’ of the school’s no-scent policy.

Gary Falkenham, 17, has been suspended twice from Duncan MacMillan High

5 School in Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia, for 5 violating the school’s strict policy banning

perfumes, aftershaves and scented hairsprays and deodorants. Last month, he was forced to stay home for two days. His latest violation led his teacher, Tanya MacDonald (who is asthmatic) to launch a formal complaint with the police. “If her reaction was severe enough you could actually even look at a possible assault

10 charge2),” Constable Scott Manning said.

The school’s strict policy is designed to prevent scented products from bothering

sensitive students and staff, including those with allergies and asthma. “It’s a touchy

area,” Manning said. “You can’t let your teachers become ill because of it, but it’s also a difficult thing to prove and a lot of kids, I think, don’t see the seriousness of it.”

15 Meanwhile, Gary’s mother, Shelley Falkenham, thinks calling police over the

breaking of a scent rule is ridiculous. “The boy cares about his hygiene and he’s being punished for it.” She was called to the police station last month to discuss a complaint filed against her son because of his smell. “I just looked at the police officer and said: ‘Are you serious?’”

The formal policy was brought in at the start of this year after two years of trying in

20 vain to get the 275 students at the rural school to follow the rules willingly, said


Tate, the vice-principal. A student caught wearing smelly deodorant or other body

products is given a warning the first two times and sent to wash off the offending

fragrance. A third violation results in a suspension from school. As many as 10 students have been suspended this year, Tate said.

25 The majority of schools around Halifax have some sort of scent policy, joining public

buildings and a growing number of private companies that are banning strong smells in the city. A few schools in Ontario have joined the crusade as well. A school in Stratford, Ontario, has a ban on scented products, and Peel District School Board, one of Canada’s largest, has run awareness campaigns that tell students: “No scents is good sense.”

Halifax Daily News

noot 2 assault charge (a legal term): if somebody is ‘charged with assault’ it means he is accused of

having attacked a person violently

9 What made Tanya MacDonald (line 7) launch a complaint with the police?

A One of her students had threatened to beat her up.

B One of her students had used perfumed products.

C She wanted to force the school board to take action against smelly students.

D She wanted to stop the trade in imitation perfumes at her school.
10 From lines 15-18 you can conclude that Gary’s mother finds it hard to believe that

A people make such a fuss about scent.

B someone actually complained that her son did not wash properly.

C the police accused her of encouraging her son’s behaviour.

D the police refuse to listen to her arguments.
11 Paulette Tate geeft in regel 19 en 20 aan dat men er niet in geslaagd is de studenten te laten meewerken.

In welke regel in alinea 1 tot en met 3 (regels 1-14) wordt al eerder een reden

genoemd waarom studenten niet meewerken?

Schrijf het regelnummer op.
12 What becomes clear from lines 25-29 about the scent problem?

A It is not only schools that have to deal with the scent issue.

B Many students have asked for clearer regulations on the use of scented products.

C Most schools have decided to introduce an even stricter scent policy than before.

Text 3







1 The idea of donating organs is

probably something most people don’t

like to give much thought. Who wants to think about what will happen to their

body when they’re gone? However, the

shortage of organs has reached critical


2 The shortage has forced some people

to go abroad to buy organs on the black market. Last December police

uncovered an organ trafficking gang,

which involved buying organs from poor people in Brazil for $10,000 and selling them for transplant in South Africa, for around $120,000. Kidneys from live donors are also traded illegally. The reason for the crisis is simple: not enough people have registered to donate, according to Mr Chris Rudge, kidney transplant surgeon at The Royal London Hospital. ‘There’s always been a shortage, which is ..14.. because transplant surgery is so successful. We know that 90 per cent of people would be willing to donate. They just don’t join the NHS Organ Donor Register.’

3 Another stumbling block is that when

grieving relatives are approached about the prospect of donating the organs of their loved ones, they usually refuse. ‘I don’t know why relatives say no,’ says Mr Rudge, ‘I’m worried that there might be a lack of trust between patients and doctors.’

4 Scandals like the one involving Alder

Hey children’s hospital in Liverpool,

where organs and skin tissues were

removed from dead children without

permission for research purposes, have certainly done little to reassure the public. The case of former footballer George Best’s excessive drinking, after he had his liver transplant, certainly has not helped people to decide to donate either!

5 Perhaps it’s a question of showing

people what donation can mean. One

person’s death can save and improve

the lives of more than ten other people.

A heart transplant can save one life, and lung transplants save two more. The liver can be split, saving two more lives. Success rates are excellent: nine out of ten patients will lead healthy lives for years.

6 Deborah Duval, 44, received a new

kidney and pancreas in 1994. She met

the family of her donor, a 34-year-old

man, who saved the lives of six people

after his death. Her new kidney failed

four years later, but she’s now in good

health after a second transplant. ‘A

phone call once again brought the

dream of a life free from dialysis,’

remembers Deborah. ‘I owe my life to

two families’ extraordinary generosity

and compassion.’

7 At present, even if you have chosen to

donate your organs, your relatives can

overrule you after your death. A new law is going through Parliament to change this, so that the wishes of the individual are decisive. We should ask ourselves, would we want a transplant if we were critically ill? If the answer’s 'Yes' then surely we must be willing to do the same for others.


13 Why do so few people in the UK register as donors, according to paragraphs 1

and 2?

A Most people are very much against donating their organs.

B Most people do not take the trouble to have themselves registered as donors.

C People can make a lot of money by selling their organs.
14 Kies bij de open plek in alinea 2 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven


A acceptable

B frustrating

C great

D obvious
15 What do the examples about Alder Hey hospital and George Best in paragraph 4

want to make clear?

These examples explain why

A alcohol and donating organs for transplantation do not go together.

B children’s organs are not suitable for transplantation.

C many people have their doubts about donating their organs.

D organ donation is an important issue for everyone.
16 ‘it’s a question of showing people what donation can mean’ (alinea 5)

Leg uit wat de schrijver mensen duidelijk wil maken.

17 What message did a phone call bring Deborah Duval? (paragraph 6)

A She would meet her donor’s family.

B She would receive another kidney.

C There was nothing wrong with her kidney.
18 ‘A new law is going through Parliament to change this’ (paragraph 7)

What does the word ‘this’ refer to?

A people refusing to register as organ donors

B the donor’s family preventing the donation

C the giving of organs to people who have not registered

D the selling of organs on the black market

Tekst 4

Ruled by the politics of the playground

Anybody who was ever called unkind names at school must be gasping with

astonishment this weekend at the news that the Crown Prosecution Service

(CPS) has thought fit to bring criminal charges against a 10-year-old who is said

to have called an 11-year-old schoolmate a “Paki” and “Bin Laden” in the

5 playground. According to the boy, the older child had called him “white trash”.

But they remain good friends, say his parents.

Every word uttered by Jonathan Finestein, the District Court Judge who is

hearing the case at Salford Youth Court, rang with common sense. The decision

to prosecute, he said, was ‘crazy’. It was ‘political correctness gone mad’. “I was

10 repeatedly called fat at school,” said the judge. “Does this amount to a criminal

offence? … Nobody is more against racist abuse than me, but these are boys in a

playground, this is nonsense … There must be other ways of dealing with this

apart from criminal prosecution. In the old days, the headmaster would have got

them both and given them a good clouting.”

15 The judge had other home truths to tell, which ought to give the Greater

Manchester Police and the CPS pause for thought. “This is how stupid the whole

system is getting,” he said. “There are major crimes out there and the police

don’t bother to prosecute. If you get your car stolen, it doesn’t matter, but you

get two kids falling out … this is nonsense.”

20 But even more breathtaking than the decision by the CPS to prosecute is the fact

that so many people have sought to defend it. We understand why the police in

Greater Manchester have refused to acknowledge how stupidly they have

behaved. It is much less trouble for them, after all, to pursue schoolchildren for

calling each other names in the playground than to catch proper criminals. But it

25 is harder to understand why the teachers’ unions are supporting the CPS and

attacking the judge. They really ought to think harder about where the true

interests of children lie.

Judge Finestein and the two schoolfriends whose playground quarrel provoked

all this nonsense have a great deal to teach the police, the CPS and the unions

30 about growing up.
“Anybody who … with astonishment” (lines 1-2)

19 Which of the following quotations explains the thought behind this remark?

A “the older child had called him ‘white trash’” (line 5)

B “But they remain good friends” (line 6)

C “‘I was repeatedly called fat at school’” (lines 9-10)

D “There must … criminal prosecution.” (lines 12-13)
“have a great deal to teach the police” (line 29)

20 Which of the following lessons is meant here?

A Anybody who feels insulted by another party should bring the matter to court.

B Pupils should not be allowed to use abusive language at school.

C Schoolboy quarrels should be settled without the assistance of a court of law.

D The police should also pay attention to what they consider trivial cases.

21 Geef voor elk van de volgende citaten aan of deze wel of niet weergeeft dat de

schrijver het eens is met rechter Finestein.

1 “Every word … common sense.” (lines 7-8)

2 “The judge … for thought.” (lines 15-16)

3 “We understand … have behaved.” (lines 21-23)

4 “They really … children lie.” (lines 26-27)

Noteer het nummer van elk citaat, gevolgd door “wel” of “niet”.
Text 5

When did ‘hanging around’ become a social problem?

By Josie Appleton

1 Police are on high alert across the country. Councillors and police

forces have racked their brains for new ways of dealing with the annual

threat to national security. No, not terrorists in this instance, but kids

hanging around on street corners.

2 The summer holidays are cue for a raft of measures to tackle youths’ bad

behaviour. Police prepare for groups of young people out on the streets as if for

a national emergency. This year, the Home Office minister announced £500,000

in grants for 10 local areas to take action against teenage criminal damage.

Discipline measures range from the heavy-handed – including curfews and

dispersal orders – to the frankly bizarre.

3 The Local Government Association (LGA) has compiled a list of naff songs, such

as Lionel Richie’s ‘Hello’, for councils to play in trouble spots in order to keep

youths ..23.. . This policy has been copied from Sydney, where it is known as

the ‘Manilow Method’ (after the king of naff, Barry Manilow), and has precursors

in what we might call the ‘Mozart Method’, which was first deployed in Canadian

train stations and from 2004 onwards was adopted by British shops and train

stations. Another new technique for dispersing youths is the Mosquito, a

machine that emits a high-pitched noise only audible to teenage ears. Adults

walk by unmolested, but youngsters apparently find the device unbearable and

can’t stand to be near it for long.

4 These bizarre attempts at crowd control provide a snapshot of adult unease

about young people. Teenagers are treated almost as another species, ..25..

reasoning and social sanction. Just as cattle are directed with electric shocks, or

cats are put off with pepper dust, so teenagers are prodded with Manilow,

Mozart or the Mosquito with just one goal in mind.

5 ..26.. , bored teenagers do get up to no good and always have, but this isn’t just

about teenagers committing crimes: it’s also about them just being there. The

Home Secretary called on councils to tackle the national problem of ‘teenagers

hanging around street corners’. Apparently unsupervised young people are in

themselves a social problem.

6 Councils across Britain are using curfews, dispersal orders, and the power to

march a youth home if they suspect he or she is up to no good. In 2005, several

British towns drafted in the army to patrol the streets at night – a senior Ministry

of Defence official said the presence of troops would ‘deter bad behaviour’ from

youths. Police in Weston-super-Mare have been shining bright halogen lights

from helicopters on to youths gathered in parks and other public places. The

light temporarily blinds them, and is intended to ‘move them on’, in the words of

one Weston police officer.

7 Some have said that these measures ..28.. young people in general. Certainly,

curfews and dispersal orders are what you might normally expect from a country

in a state of siege or under a dictatorship, rather than for summer nights in

British towns and cities. But the Manilow Method is hardly dictatorial. Instead,

these attempts at discipline speak of paranoid adults unable to talk to kids or win

them over. Adults are behaving like social inadequates rather than strong-arm


8 Low-level misdemeanours, which in the past might have been sorted out with a

few harsh words or a clip around the ear, now require battalions of ‘anti-social

behaviour coordinators’, police officers and other assorted officials. Police

authorities carry out ‘special operations’ against groups of young people who are

engaged in such activities as hanging around drinking in the park. They then

share intelligence with other authorities, giving each other tips on techniques for

getting the cans of alcoholic drinks off the youngsters. Minor annoyances have

become the focus for special campaigns. Even that wholesome game of

hopscotch has become a concern. West Midlands Police Community support

officers asked parents to remove chalk markings from the street, after receiving

complaints and reports of ‘anti-social behaviour’. A BBC News report noted

gravely that ‘Several children were involved in the games resulting in several

markings on the pavement.’

9 As the schools prepare to reopen, no doubt police forces are breathing a

collective sigh of relief. Crisis over – at least until next year. ■

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