Sun wind water earth life living; legends for design

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Sun wind water earth life living; legends for design

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Sun wind water earth life living; legends for design

Contents clickable at > Publications 2007
INTRODUCTION exercises .xls

1 SUN, ENERGY AND PLANTS exercises .xls





2 WIND, SOUND AND NOISE exercises .xls













3.5 THE SECOND NETWORK: ROADS exercises .xls










5 LIFE, ECOLOGY AND NATURE exercises .xls












7 LEGENDS FOR DESIGN exercises .xls








enclosure 1 the taxonomy of dutch plant families

enclosure 2 ranking support of facilities the netherlands 2000

enclosure 3 tables taken from the statistical yearbook 2001

enclosure 4 VNG table 1 environmental impact business types in metres

enclosure 5 VNG table 2 environmental impact installation types in metres



Introduction exercises .xls

Building is cooperating with the Earth.’

Marguerite Yourcenar.


Activating senses

Sun, wind, water, earth and life touch our living senses immediately, always, everywhere and without any intervention of reason. They simply are there in their unmatched variety, moving us, our moods, memories, imaginations, intentions and plans.

Mathematics next to senses

However, the designer transforming sun into light, air into space and water into life, touches pure mathematics next to senses. Mathematicians left alone destroy mathematics releasing it from senses, losing their unmatched beauty and relief, losing their sense for design. To restore that intimate relation, the most freeing part of our European cultural heritage my great examples are Feynman’s lectures on physics, D’Arcy Thomson’s ‘On Growth and Form’ and Minnaert’s ‘Natuurkunde van het vrije veld’ (‘Outdoor physics’). Minnaert elaborated the missing step from feeling to estimating.

I am sitting in the sun. How much energy do I receive, how much I send back into universe?

I am walking in wind. How much pressure do I receive and how much power my muscles have to overcome? It is the same pressure giving form to the sand I walk on or giving form and movement to the birds above me! I am swimming in the oldest landscape of all ages, the sea. How can I survive?

Re-constructing behaviours

No longer can I escape from reasoning, from looking for a formula, a behaviour that works. But this reasoning is next to senses and once I found a formula I can leave the reasoning behind going back into senses and sense. The formula takes its own path in my Excel sheet as a living thing. It ‘behaves’. Look! Does it take the same path as the sun, predicting my shadow? Put a pencil and a ruler in the sun. Measure, compare, lose or win your competition with the real sun as Copernicus did.

Mathematics have no longer much to do with boring calculations. Nowadays computers do the work, we do the learning. They sharpen our reasoning and senses. We see larger contexts and smaller details than ever before discovering scale. Discovering telescopic and microscopic scale we find the multiple universe we live in, freeing us from boredom forever, producing images no human can invent. We do not believe our eyes and ears, we discover them. It challenges our imagination in strange worlds no holiday can equal. Life math is a survival journey with excitement and suspense.

Science as design

But do we understand the sun? No, according to Kant (1976) we design a sun behaving like the sun we feel and see from our position and scale of time and space we live in. We never know for sure whether it will behave tomorrow in the same way as our sheet does now. But we have made something that works here and now.

‘Yes! It works.’ That is a designer’s joy.

How to use this book

This book is not a reader. It contains original texts by the authors from our school and a civil engineer to understand how specialists think, supporting our profession as urban designers.

Systematic encyclopaedia

It is ordered in an systematic encyclopaedic style. It is accessible by its table of contents (elaborated in more detail at the beginning of each chapter), and by a key word list containing some 6000 key words at the end of the book, including other authors we refer to. Full references to other authors are given on the end of every sub-chapter, to be found via the key word list. Direct references into publications and websites to look up immediately as a result of reading are given as foot notes indicated by letters in the text and listed at the bottom of the page. Questions for exercise are indicated as end notes by numbers in the text listed at the end of the book. However, these questions don not yet cover the whole content of the book.

Design related use

So, you do not have to read everything before you can use it making inventories for design (like a local atlas of thematic maps), while designing, or reflecting on your designs. Reflecting on your design work is what we ask in the assignments of the course accompanying this book: how did you apply Sun in your earlier design work, what could you have done, how do you apply Sun in your actual design work and what could you do with it in the future? The same is asked for Wind, Water and so on. A growing number of computer programs for experiments and calculations per section is downloadable from publications 2007.

Non-disciplinary combinations like sun and plantation

The chapters Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living and Legends for design are the same as the title of the book indicates. These subjects are ordered this way, because it is the conditional sequence we experience them directly outdoor and gradually can understand them best. However, the chapter ‘Sun’ contains sub-chapters on energy, entropy, temperature, light, the history of our territory dependent on solar fluctuations, man-made plantation (written by Steenbergen and Drs. M.J. Moens), shadow and vision as well, because these subjects are often related in design or better comprehensible in the offered context. Perhaps in your design you can connect things in another way than the usual scientific and specialist’s distinction of disciplines suggests. For the same reason we did not aim for a distinction between natural and man-made phenomena in the sequence of chapters. It is rather a conditional sequence of growing complexity in cycles of inductive observing, deductive understanding and practical application. So, any chapter is better understood knowing something about the subject of the preceding chapter.

Wind and noise

The chapter ‘Wind’ contains noise as well, because both are movements of air. These flows are more complex than those of mere energy and light. This chapter shows another principle of ordering we aim for in any separate chapter: the level of scale. So, you can choose the sub-chapter concerning the level of scale you focus on in your study. We have tried to start every chapter on the highest level of scale. There are arguments to start with the lowest level, most directly related to our senses, but we chose the other way round, because lower levels of scale are better understood knowing their context. This way, you may get a feeling for contextual factors determining a particular environment and its mathematical modelling with parameters stemming from that context. In design practice you can reason the reverse way or both ways.

Water and traffic

The chapter ‘Water’ is primarily based on the lecture notes C. van den Akker offered us for use when he retired from the Faculty of Civil engineering. Ir. De Bruin, Taeke M. de Jong, ir. M.W.M. van den Toorn and Drs. M.J. Moens added many subjects relevant for design. However, It contains traffic as well, because the combination of these different flows on the Earth’s surface and their resulting networks are an important part of urban and regional design. Here Bach (2006) was a great inspiration. So, we did not primarily make a distinction between natural and man-made networks. The comparison of their characteristics is interesting, instructive, and may be a source of new design ideas.

Earth and subterranian infrastructure

The chapter ‘Earth’, written by Drs. M.J. Moens, is better understood if you know something about wind and water. The division of its sub-chapters starts strictly with levels of scale, but then sub-chapters follow about soil pollution, preparing a site for development, cables and ducts, map analysis.

Life and demography, genius loci

The ecological chapter ‘Life’ supposes sun, wind, water and earth. These conditions are discussed earlier in the book, so the chapter can focus on the distribution and abundance of life itself. Biology is physics with numerous feed-back mechanisms, not te be modelled so easily in a mathematical sense. However, it introduces approaches of system-dynamics, demography, useful in human environments as well. Life contains human life. So, this chapter tries to consider man as a species between other species (syn-ecology), while the next chapter ‘Human Living’ concentrates on human species only (aut-ecology). However, there are sub-chapters on valuing and mananging nature by man in your plan, and on the role of an urban ecologist.
The subject of this chapter is not very familiar to designers. So, you can think it is not very relevant. But in my opinion ecology, the science of distribution and abundance of species, is the very core of urban and regional design. Local vegetaton and wild life clarifies much about what designers feel as a mysterious ‘genius loci’. Ecology is a neglected source of local identity.

Evolution and design methods

Evolution of life has something in common with design thinking: its course of trial and error into diversity and order. The evolutionary taxonomy of plants and animals, types of life, their distribution and adapation into different environments, accommodating and modifying them, give examples of the same problems any design task stands for. Your typological repertoire of design solutions selects environments and the reverse different environments select different types of design.

Human living, habitat, density, economy, and environmental problems

The chapter ‘Human living’ shows the history of human occupation in general and in The Netherlands in particular. That piece of land in between France, Belgium, Germany and Great Britain contains both lower and higher grounds, combining many characteristics of its neighbours. Its delta gives an impression of a development known from many densely populated lowlands in the world, the spatial composition of ecological, technical, economic, cultural and administrative components. A sub-chapter is devoted to urban density on different levels of scale. The sub-chapter ‘Environment’ discusses some consequences of living in high densities like environmental problems, environmental norms, gains and losses.

Legends for design and composition

The chapter ‘Legends for design’ stimulates to consider these phenomena of urban physics as innovative components, legend units, spatial types given form in a design composition. It raises philosophical questions on unusual types, their suppositions, combinations and consequences.

References on Introduction

Bach, B. (2006) Urban design and traffic / Stedenbouw en verkeer (Ede) CROW

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1963) The Feynman lectures on physics I (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company ISBN 0-201-02010-6-H / 0-201-02116-1-P.

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1964) The Feynman lectures on physics II (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company ISBN 0-201-02117-X-P / 0-201-02011-4-H.

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1966,1965) The Feynman lectures on physics III (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company ISBN 0-201-02118-X-P / 0-201-02114-9-H.

Kant, I. (1976) Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Frankfurt am Main) Suhrkamp Verlag.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1974) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel I. Licht en kleur in het landschap (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie ISBN 90-03-90780-3.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1975) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 2. Geluid, warmte, electriciteit (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie ISBN 90-03-90790-0.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1971) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 3. Rust en beweging (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie ISBN 90-03-90840-0.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1993) Light and color in the outdoors (New York, N.Y.,) Springer ISBN 0.387.94413.3 p; 0.387.97935.2; 3.540.97935.2.

Thomson, D. A. W. (1961) On growth and form (Cambridge UK) Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 43776 8 paperback.

1Sun, energy and plants exercises .xls



1.1.1 Physical measures

1.1.2 Entropy

1.1.3 Energetic efficiency

1.1.4 Global energy

1.1.5 National energy

1.1.6 Local energy storage

1.1.7 References to Energy


1.2.1 Long term variation

1.2.2 Seasonal variation

1.2.3 Seasons and common plants

1.2.4 References to Temperature


1.3.1 Looking from the universe (a, b and latitude l)

1.3.2 Looking from the Sun (declination d)

1.3.3 Looking back from Earth (azimuth and sunheight)

1.3.4 Appointments about time on Earth

1.3.5 Calculating sunlight periods

1.3.6 Shadow

1.3.7 References to Sun


1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Planting and Habitat

1.4.3 Tree planting and the urban space

1.4.4 Hedges

2Wind, sound and noise exercises .xls



2.1.1 Air, its mass and density

2.1.2 Wind, its force and power

2.1.3 The atmosphere

2.1.4 Climate

2.1.5 The urban impacts of wind

2.1.6 Measures, targeted impacts per level of scale

2.1.7 References to Global atmosphere


2.2.1 National distribution of wind velocity

2.2.2 Closer specification of wind statistics

2.2.3 The energy profit of wind turbines

2.2.4 Energy losses from buildings

2.2.5 Temperature impacts

2.2.6 Comfort of outdoor space

2.2.7 Dispersion of air pollution

2.2.8 Summary national comparison

2.2.9 References to National choice of location


2.3.1 Roughness of surrounding grounds

2.3.2 Impact of new urban area lose from or adjacent to town in case of Westerly wind

2.3.3 Impact of new urban area lose or adjacent in case of Easterly wind

2.3.4 Impacts on energy losses by ventilation behind the edge in the interior of town

2.3.5 Highways, railways, green areas and forests


2.4.1 Local shelter of residential areas

2.4.2 Increase of wind velocity by height

2.4.3 The form of a town

2.4.4 Dispersion of urban area

2.4.5 The form of town edge

2.4.6 Wind directions, temperature and built form

2.4.7 References to local measures


2.5.1 From calculable ‘rough surface’ into allotments in a wind tunnel

2.5.2 Wind tunnel experiments

2.5.3 Pressure differences between front and back façades

2.5.4 District lay out

2.5.5 Neighbourhoods

2.5.6 References to District and neighbourhood variants


2.6.1 From wind tunnel experiments into methods of calculation

2.6.2 Impact of trees

2.6.3 Comparing repeated allotments 100x100m

2.6.4 Wind behaviour around high objects

2.6.5 References to allotment of hectares


2.7.1 Music

2.7.2 Power or intensity

2.7.3 Sound and noise

2.7.4 Birds

2.7.5 Traffic noise

2.7.6 References to Sound and noise

3Water, networks and crossings

exercises .xls



3.1.1 Earth

3.1.2 Evaporation and precipitation

3.1.3 Runoff

3.1.4 Static balance

3.1.5 Movement ignoring resistance

3.1.6 Resistance

3.1.7 Erosion and sedimentation

3.1.8 Hydraulic geometry of stream channels

3.1.9 River morphology

3.1.10 Simulating a simple drainage system

3.1.11 Bifurcation or trunking in traffic networks

3.1.12 Catchment area and river length

3.1.13 Local morphologies

3.1.14 Measuring velocities to get Q

3.1.15 Discharge Q on different water heights

3.1.16 Interpolation of experimental data by using Excel

3.1.17 Calculating drainage Q with a rough profile

3.1.18 Level and discharge regulators

3.1.19 References to Water balance


3.2.1 History

3.2.2 The distribution of water

3.2.3 The threat of floods

3.2.4 Risks of flooding

3.2.5 Measures to avoid floods

3.2.6 Coastal protection

3.2.7 The Delta project

3.2.8 The central coast line

3.2.9 The northern defence system

3.2.10 Polders

3.2.11 Need of drainage and flood control

3.2.12 Artificial drainage

3.2.13 Configuration and drainage patterns of polders

3.2.14 Drainage and use

3.2.15 Weirs, sluices and locks

3.2.16 Water management tasks in the landscape


3.3.1 Delfland Waterboard

3.3.2 Policy

3.3.3 Spatial plans checked on their impact on water: ‘Watertoets’

3.3.4 References to civil engineering in The Netherlands


3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Hydrologic cycle and water system

3.4.3 Water quality and management

3.4.4 Sustainability and water management

3.4.5 References to water management in spatial design

3.5 THE SECOND NETWORK: ROADS exercises .xls

3.5.1 Names and scale

3.5.2 Functional charge of networks

3.5.3 Rectangularity forced by connections of a higher level

3.5.4 Superposition of levels

3.5.5 Interference of different networks

3.5.6 Crossings

3.5.7 A traffic network

3.5.8 Measures

3.5.9 A residential street

3.5.10 Space for speed

3.5.11 Roads of a higher level

3.5.12 Urban islands in a network

3.5.13 A neighbourhood

3.5.14 A road hierarchy

3.5.15 From a model back into a real city

3.5.16 Traffic surface

3.5.17 Harbours P.M.

3.5.18 References to the second network


3.6.1 The electricity network

3.6.2 The gas network

3.6.3 Water pipes

3.6.4 Pressure pipelines for sewage water

3.6.5 The telephone network

3.6.6 Radio and television transmitters

3.6.7 Network for the transport of raw materials

3.6.8 Tunnels

3.6.9 Urban scale

3.6.10 The future.

4Earth, soil pollution and site preparation exercises .xls



4.1.1 Span of view

4.1.2 References Introduction


4.2.1 Landforms created by water

4.2.2 Landforms created by rivers

4.2.3 Landforms created by ice

4.2.4 Landforms created by the wind

4.2.5 Landforms created by slope processes


4.3.1 Pedological landscapes

4.3.2 Clay soils

4.3.3 Sand soils

4.3.4 Peat soils and peat reclamation soils


4.4.1 Soil structure

4.4.2 Ground water

4.4.3 Soil horizon differentiation


4.5.1 Chemical composition of the earth’s crust

4.5.2 Weathering

4.5.3 Sediments

4.5.4 Soil

4.5.5 Identifying soil fractions

4.5.6 Naming of ground types


4.6.1 Soil pollution

4.6.2 General soil knowledge

4.6.3 Soil pollution and building activities

4.6.4 Exploratory survey

4.6.5 Follow-up investigation

4.6.6 Causes of soil pollution

4.6.7 Remediation methods

4.6.8 Soil purification techniques

4.6.9 Appendix saneringsregeling wet bodembescherming P.M. (remediation regulations under the Soil Protection Act)

4.6.10 References soil pollution


4.7.1 Site analyses

4.7.2 Preparing a site for development

4.7.3 Methods for preparing a site for development

4.7.4 Detailed elaboration for urban functions

4.7.5 Check lists

5Life, ecology and nature exercises .xls



5.1.1 Long-term biotic changes

5.1.2 400 000 000 years ago

5.1.3 230 000 000 years ago

5.1.4 65 000 000 years ago

5.1.5 Pleistocene

5.1.6 References to natural history


5.2.1 The importance of diversity for life

5.2.2 The importance of diversity for human living

5.2.3 Scale-sensitive concepts

5.2.4 Spatial state of dispersion as a condition of diversity

5.2.5 300km continental vegetation areas

5.2.6 30km national counties

5.2.7 3km Landscape formations

5.2.8 300m local life communities

5.2.9 30m ecological groups

5.2.10 3m symbiosis and competition

5.2.11 30cm individual strategies for survival

5.2.12 Identifying plants species

5.2.13 References to Diversity, scale and dispersion


5.3.1 Generalisation

5.3.2 Six kinds of ecology

5.3.3 Scale classification

5.3.4 Cybernetics

5.3.5 Regulation theory

5.3.6 Separation and discontinuity

5.3.7 Selectors and regulators in the landscape

5.3.8 Ecological networks

5.3.9 Urban ecology

5.3.10 Distribution and abundance of people

5.3.11 Comparing and applying standards for green surfaces in urban areas

5.3.12 Urban perspectives

5.3.13 Human health in the urban environment

5.3.14 References to Ecologies


5.4.1 Assessing biotic values

5.4.2 Measuring rarity

5.4.3 The IJsselmeer case

5.4.4 Replaceability

5.4.5 Comparability Problems, which categories?

5.4.6 Valuation bases

5.4.7 Valuing urban nature

5.4.8 References to Valuating nature


5.5.1 Main Ecological Structure (EHS) and nature-target types

5.5.2 Nature-target types for the higher sandy soils

5.5.3 Nature-target types in fluvial areas

5.5.4 Nature-target types for the Marine-clay areas

5.5.5 Urban nature

5.5.6 Differences in diversity between and within regions

5.5.7 References to Managing nature

6Living, human density and environment exercises .xls



6.1.1 Human population

6.1.2 Habitat, density and economy

6.1.3 Population growth

6.1.4 The urban environment

6.1.5 Mobility between urban populations

6.1.6 The urban field is not homogeneous

6.1.7 The force of specialization

6.1.8 References on adaptation and accomodation


6.2.1 Dutch heritage

6.2.2 Human impact

6.2.3 The last millennium

6.2.4 Reading topographical maps (Visser)

6.2.5 References to History of Dutch habitat


6.3.1 Global densities10 000km

6.3.2 Gross and net density

6.3.3 A binary legend: net and tare surface

6.3.4 (Sub)continental densities3 000 and 1 000km

6.3.5 National densities and distributions300km

6.3.6 Regional distribution100 and 30km

6.3.7 Density or real measure dots distribution

6.3.8 Metropolis density30km

6.3.9 Conurbation density10km

6.3.10 Town density3km

6.3.11 District density1km

6.3.12 Neighbourhood density300m

6.3.13 Ensemble density100m

6.3.14 Urban island density30m

6.3.15 Urban details10m influencing density

6.3.16 References to Densities


6.4.1 Dutch statistics

6.4.2 Population

6.4.3 Time and movement

6.4.4 Urbanity

6.4.5 Facilities

6.4.6 Dwellings

6.4.7 Public space

6.4.8 Public utilities

6.4.9 Businesses

6.4.10 References to Economy


6.5.1 Conditions

6.5.2 Emission

6.5.3 Transmission

6.5.4 Immission and exposition

6.5.5 Creating standards

6.5.6 Environmental policy

6.5.7 References to Environment

7Legends for design exercises .xls



7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 Types of maps

7.1.3 Perception and reading of (topographical) maps

7.1.4 Map analysis and interpretation

7.1.5 Making of maps and communication

7.1.6 References on mapping


7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 The growing scale of perception

7.2.3 Field of vision

7.2.4 The composition of a scene

7.2.5 Conclusions for urban design

7.2.6 References of child perception


7.3.1 Variation

7.3.2 Scale levels

7.3.3 Focus

7.3.4 Morphological reconstruction

7.3.5 Structure in terms of openness and closedness.

7.3.6 Functional differentiation

7.3.7 Intention

7.3.8 References to Composition analysis


7.4.1 Resolution and tolerance

7.4.2 Scale-sensitivity

7.4.3 Unconventional true scale legend units

7.4.4 References on Legends for design


7.5.1 Potentials rather than functions

7.5.2 Conditional considerations

7.5.3 The context and perspective of consideration

7.5.4 Relief between built-up and vacant areas

7.5.5 Interaction with exterior spaces

7.5.6 An academic example of urban architectural rules.

7.5.7 References to scales of separation


7.6.1 Creativity

7.6.2 Possible futures

7.6.3 Environment, the set of conditions for life

7.6.4 Starting by difference

7.6.5 The importance of diversity in ecology

7.6.6 Conclusion

7.6.7 References to Boundaries of imagination


enclosure 1 the taxonomy of dutch plant families

enclosure 2 ranking support of facilities the netherlands 2000

enclosure 3 tables taken from the statistical yearbook 2001

enclosure 4 VNG table 1 environmental impact business types in metres

enclosure 5 VNG table 2 environmental impact installation types in metres


The preliminary list of questions refers to end notes in the printed edition 2007.

The list is far from complete, still mainly in Dutch and will be extended and translated in next editions.

Anyone with suggestions for good questions please mail
1 How defines the SI system of units energy and power?

2 In what units are energy and power expressed?

3 What is the energy content of 1 m3 natural gas (aeq)?

4 What is the energy content of 1 litre petrol?

5 Give three expressions for the power of one watt during a year.

6 Give three examples for the power of one watt during a year.

7 Express 1 kWh in J.

8 Give three examples of a power of 100W in every day life.

9 Why is electric energy more expensive than the same energy from gas?

10 Which conversions are combined in an electric power station and which efficiencies are involved?

11 Noem 3 bezwaren van het gebruik van uranium voor de energievoorzie­ning, licht elk bezwaar aan de hand van 3 elementen toe

12 Wat is kernfusie. Wat zijn de gevaren van kernfusie

13 For which applications is energy storage of decisive importance?

14 Which kind of energy storage is most efficient. Why don’t we use it?

15 Why are flowering periods important for nature management? What types of biotope have an early flowering period and what types have a late one? What types of biotope have a limited flowering period late in the summer? To what extent can the daily variations in growing circumstances play a role in nature management?

16 Why are street patterns and artificial drainage systems in flat lands not like a tree but like a lattice?

17 What information must be incorporated into the “follow-up investigation” report?

18 What are the causes of soil pollution in industrial sites?

19 What is a reference value?

20 What is a target value?

21 What is an intervention value?

22 Name at least 5 operational activities that can cause soil pollution.

23 Which remediation methods have been identified?

24 Name 3 purification techniques.

25 When should contaminated soil tipping be considered?

26 When is contaminated soil storage preferred?

27 List 3 disadvantages of in-situ soil purification.

28 List 3 advantages of in-situ soil purification.

29 When is contamination isolated?

30 What is the focus of soil remediation?

31 Which four revolutions in the development of life-forms can one identify during the last billion years? When did the majority of botanical families in Heukels’ Flora come into existence?

Into which five main groups can one divide vascular plants, in the order in which they originated?

32 Where in the Netherlands is the sedimentation deposited since the last Ice Age the thickest? How thick is it there? How thick is it under Delft? From what period of time after the last Ice Age have human beings been present in the Netherlands? Did human beings live in the Netherlands before the last Ice Age?

33 Welke 10 biomen kun je op aarde onderscheiden aan de hand van temperatuur en neerslag? In welke biotoop ligt Nederland (gemiddeld per jaar ca. 10 graden Celsius en 80 cm neerslag)

34 Welke Europese floragebieden zijn in Nederland vertegenwoordigd?

35 Welke drie geologische eenheden onderscheidt men in Nederland?

36 Noem vier plantengeografische districten die in Nederland worden onderscheiden. Noem uit elk district twee kenmerkende bomen of planten.

37 Waardoor draagt hetzelfde biotooptype niet altijd dezelfde levensgemeenschap? Noem twee klassen uit de klassificatie volgens Den Held (1989).

38 Noem drie ecologische groepen die achteruitgaan.

39 Waarom is de indeling naar biotooptypen van Runhaar, Groen, Van der Meijden en Stevers niet op oorzakelijke differentiatiefactoren zoals bodemtype en waterhuishouding gebaseerd?

40 Wat zijn de voordelen van een zekere hiërarchie in de typologie?

41 Wat betekenen in de Heukels' Flora bij een soort achtereenvolgens de volgende toevoegingen: W18sa, V11, H27, G23, P21, P28, H42, H47, G47kr, P41, P42, P43, P40mu, H61, H63, P63ro.

42 Runhaar c.s. (1987) houden als criterium voor de indeling van soorten in biotooptypen en ecologische groepen aan. Welk criterium voor de indeling van soorten in biotooptypen houden Runhaar c.s. aan en waarom?

43 Geef een voorbeeld van de causale samenhang tussen voedselarmoede en soortenrijkdom

44 Op welke schaalniveaus en waarom is de herkenning van planten en dieren onderling en door elkaar van belang? Welke factoren spelen daarbij een rol? In welke fase van de voortplanting is deze herkenning belangrijk en welke fase volgt daarna? Welke betekenis heeft dit voor de planning van ecologische infrastruktuur?

45 Welke overlevingsstrategieën onderscheidt Grime (1988)?

46 Geef 5 verschillen tussen pionierstadium en climaxstadium volgens Odum (1971).

47 Wat betekenen de strategieeën volgens Grime voor de eisen die de plant aan de bodem stelt? Naar welke categorie gaat de belangstelling van de natuurbescherming in het bijzonder uit?

48 Welke kanttekeningen moet men plaatsen bij de geconstateerde stedelijke bijdrage aan de locale biodiversiteit?

49 Wat is het verschil tussen adaptatie en accomodatie?

50 Wanneer leefde homo habilis en welke overgang van habitat markeert hij?

51 Hoe oud is de mens als soort en op grond van welk onderscheidend criterium kan men dat stellen?

52 Noem 3 menselijke eigenschappen die wel worden toegeschreven aan het leven in een boom-milieu voorafgaand aan Homo Habilis.

53 Schets enkele ergonomisch en architektonisch relevante kenmerken van het bosmilieu.

54 Welke habitats leveren de hoogste en laagste bevolkingsdichtheden op en hoeveel mensen wonen daar ongeveer per km2?

55 Welke relatie bestaat tussen huishouding en dichtheid?

56 In welke grootte-orde verschilt de habitat van de menselijke populatie in het stadium van jagers-verzamelaars, landbouwers en de commercieel-industriële fase?

57 Welk fundamenteel in het ruimtegebruik afleesbaar maatschappelijk proces werd door de overgang van jacht naar landbouw sterk bevorderd?

58 Wat is de neolithische revolutie?

59 Waardoor is de afvlakking van de wereldbevolkingsgroei omstreeks het begin van onze jaartelling doorbroken?

60 Met welke uit de ecologie bekende vormen van populatie-dynamiek kan een epidemie worden vergeleken?

61 Met welke economische factor ging bevolkingsdaling de afgelopen duizend jaar gepaard, en aan welke factoren van bevolkingsdynamiek was dat te wijten?

62 Moet men de toekomstige Nederlandse bevolking exponentiëel of logistisch interpreteren?

63 Hoe kan men de huidige exponentiële groei met het logistische principe in overeenstemming brengen?

64 Welke drie vormen die aan natuurlijke groeiprocessen doen denken kan een chaos-functie aannemen?

65 Welke vorm hadden de bevolkingsprognoses tot 2050 van het CBS in 2002?

66 Welke middelen om de bevoling te beperken hebben in het verleden een rol van betekenis gespeeld?

67 Noem enkele maatschappelijke gevolgen van de industriële revolutie.

68 Welke relatie bestaat tussen stedelijke verdichting en functiesplitsing?

69 Noem enkele mogelijke fysieke consekwenties van het wonen in hoge dichtheden.

70 Wat is gebruiksintensiteit?

71 Op welke planmatige manieren kan men verdringing en wachttijden voorkomen?

72 Waarom is de gebruiksintensiteit een belangrijke ruimtelijke factor?

Waarom wordt de gebruiksintensiteit in de ruimtelijke ordening zo weinig als planinstrument gebruikt?

73 Welke 5 stedelijke functies hadden in 1983 de hoogste gebruiksintensiteit?

74 In hoeverre kan de Randstad metropolitane ambities koesteren?

75 Welke opmerkelijke ontwikkelingen maakte het Nederlandse landschap door tussen:

1000 - 1100 n.C.

1675 - 1800

1850 - 1960

1960 - 1989

76 Welke menselijke ingrepen kan men onderscheiden en wat is hun ecologisch resultaat?

77 Hoe heeft sinds 1000 na Chr. de landbouw ecologisch een verrijking tot stand gebracht?

78 Geef een schematisch overzicht van de invloed van traditionele en moderne landbouw.

79 Hoeveel agrarisch gebied, natuurgebied en stedelijk gebied heeft Nederland per inwoner?

Wat is 'woongebied' volgens de definitie van het CBS?

80 Hoe varieert de hoeveelheid woongebied volgens de definitie van het CBS per inwoner over Nederland?

81 Noem twee redenen waarom men voorzichtig moet zijn met planologische kengetallen voor grondgebruikscategorieeen.

82 Met welke factor kan men uit de plaatselijke inwonerdichtheid de plaatselijke woningdichtheid afleiden? Hoe heeft de woningbezetting zich na de oorlog ontwikkeld? Wat was hiervan de oorzaak?

83 Teken in eenheden van 100 000 inwoners op de schaal van landelijk gemiddeld stedelijk ruimtegebruik het proces van deglomeratie.

84 Welke agglomeraties en steden waren in de Randstad in 1965 nog als afzonderlijke eenheid op de kaart herkenbaar?

85 Geef de namen van relatief bebouwde en onbebouwde gebieden in een semi-logaritmische morfologische reeks tussen 30km en 10m.

86 Geef de namen van ontsluitingswegen in een semi-logaritmisch-morfologische reeks tussen 30m en 10km.

87 Geef de namen van waterlopen in een semi-logaritmische reeks tussen 30m en 100km.

88 Hoe kun je in een gestyleerd regionaal plan de planlaag onderscheiden van de reeds bestaande gebieden? Geef een voorbeeld van functionele inkleuring van legenda-eenheden voor bebouwd en onbebouwd gebied in een gestyleerd regionaal plan.

89 Hoe luidt de milieudefinitie van Udo de Haes?

90 Hoe kan deze definitie worden uitgedrukt in de technische en welke beperking loopt zij daarbij op?

91 Hoe kan men accomodatie en adaptatie onderscheiden?

92 Hoe kun je bewijzen dat er onwaarschijnlijke mogelijkheden zijn en hoe exploreren wij die?

93 Waarom is het onderscheid tussen voorwaarde en oorzaak in de ecologie en in het ontwerp zo belangrijk?

94 Hoe kan men milieuproblemen en -maatregelen technisch formuleren en wat onderscheidt de technische formulering van andere formuleringen?

95 Hoe kan men door substitutie uit de technische milieudefinitie verschillende andere definities genereren en onderscheiden?

96 Noem enkele verschillende milieupercepties.

97 Geef een technisch-ecologische definitie van (stede)bouw, (stede)bouwkundig onderzoek en -ontwerp.

98 Geef een technisch-ecologische definitie van ecologie, technische ecologie, milieuplanning en milieutechnisch ontwerpen.

99 Waarom won tot op heden in het debat tussen antropocentristen en ecocentristen de antropocentrist altijd?

100 Waarom staan niet alleen voorwaarden voor het leven, maar ook milieuproblemen en milieumaatregelen met elkaar in een "voorwaardelijk verband"?

101 Waarom leidt het operationeel "aanpakken" van de direkte oorzaak van milieuproblemen zo vaak tot teleurstellingen?

102 Wat zijn milieustrategieën en -tactieken?

103 Welke 5 bronnen, vormen van uitworp, media en objec­ten kan men onderscheiden?

104 Schets een schema van de effectketen met voor elke fase een kolom. Noteer daarin per kolom voorbeelden van niet-getalsnormen en getalsnormen.

105 Schets de assen van een tabel waarmee men globaal de emis­sie van een gebied kan ramen wanneer men alleen over inwoner­tallen beschikt.

106 Geef 3 voorbeelden van koolwaterstoffen en hun belangrijkste effect.

107 Noem twee maten voor de milieubelasting van complexe mengsels.

108 Noem 5 vormen van energetische emissie met enkele voor­beelden.

109 Wat omvat transmissie?

110 Wat is de troposfeer?

111 Wat is een stabiele atmosfeer? Wanneer treedt een inversie op en waarom? Wat is een inversie?Hoe lost een inversie op? Onder welke omstandigheden blijft hij langer bestaan?

112 Hoe verklaart men de vlakke onderkant van het wolkendek?

113 Waardoor is ons weerbeeld zo turbulent?

114 Welke stromingen ontmoeten elkaar op onze breedte?

115 Welke draairichting hebben wervels rondom een lage drukge­bied op ons halfrond en waarom?

116 Waarheen draait de wind 's avonds op het strand na een zonnige dag en waarom?

117 Welke beperking geldt voor de het voorspellen van ver­spreiding van luchtver­vuiling?

118 Welke drie soorten verspreidingsmodellen bestaan er?

119 Met welke 3 maten kan concentratie van luchtverontreini­ging gemeten worden?

120 Welke ontwikkeling heeft de transmissieberekening in water te zien gegeven vanaf 1960?

121 Waarom gebruikt men bij de berekening van grondwaterstro­men niet altijd driedimensionale modellen?

122 Wanneer kan men ook met tweedimensionale modellen vol­staan?

123 Noem 5 bronnen voor een snelle orientatie omtrent de even­tuele risico's van verbreiding van bodemverontreiniging. Waar moet men op letten?

124 Wat betekent pH, Eh, k en CEC? Wat is in dit verband het verschil tussen zand en veen?

125 Geef 3 benaderingen die ooit zijn toegepast om de prijs van een mensenleven te ramen. Is een van deze benaderingen naar Uw in­zicht redelijk? Zo niet, hoeveel geld moet er dan naar Uw inzicht aan het herstel van het milieu worden uitgege­ven wanneer U daarmee een mensenleven zou kunnen redden? Wie moet dat bedrag betalen wanneer de schuldigen niet kunnen worden aangewezen?

126 Which are the three approaches ever used to estimate the price of a human life? Is one of these approaches reasonable in your view? If not, how much money must then, in your view, be spent on the environment, to save one human life? If the guilty parties cannot be identified, who should then pay that amount?

127 Wat is een dosis effectrelatie, wat betekent LD50?

128 Hoe zou men een dosis  effectrelatie voor materialen kunnen vaststellen?

129 Hoe kent men de dosis  effectrelatie van een groot aantal stoffen bij mensen?

130 Welke organen spelen een rol bij de opname en verwerking van vergiftigingen?

131 Hoeveel % sterfte kan men ongeveer voorkomen door een reduktie in de luchtverontreiniging van ca. 10%?

132 Why is the pollution prevention insufficient for retaining plant and animal species?

133 Wat zijn streefwaarden, grenswaarden, richtwaarden, milieukwaliteitsdoelstellingen en -eisen?

134 Wat is een grenswaarde?

135 Hoe ontstaat een economisch optimum voor de bescherming van het milieu?

136 Hoe varieert de strengheid van een norm met het schaalni­veau en waarom?

137 Wat betekent EPEL, MAC, TLV?

138 Waarin schieten de bestaande milieudoelstellingen van het NMP tekort ten opzichte van ‘sustainable development’ bij verdubbeling van de bevolking?

139 Welke direkte bijdragen aan de milieugebruiksruimte kunnen aan het bouwen worden toegewezen?

140 Hoe kan men de eigen milieutaak van het bouwen in termen van milieugebruiksruimte formuleren?

141 In hoeverre kan men de in het NMP+ opgesomde bijdragen van de doelgroep 'Bouw' ook aan andere doelgroepen toerekenen?

142 Wat zijn streefwaarden en wat grenswaarden?

143 Hoe kan men het 'brongerichte beleid' volgens het NMP nader onderverdelen?

144 Hoe zou men verschillende milieuthema's en -doelstellingen onderling kunnen wegen?

145 Noem 5 'ver-thema's' uit het milieubeleid sinds het NMP.

146 Welk thema is stilzwijgend verondersteld bij elk milieuthema sinds het NMP?

147 Give an indication in order of size of 6 claims on the surface of the Deltametropolis.

148 How could you define an urban centre, an urban outskirt, a green urban area, a village and a rural living environment morphologically?

149 Which 3 three robust connections counts Deltametropolis in the National Plan of Nature Policy (LNV, 2 000)

150 How does the National Plan of Nature Policy control the biological identity of areas?

151 Why is global biological diversity a basic criterion for ecological evaluation and how could you make it locally operational?

152 The 4th National Plan of Watermanagement Policy (V&W, 1998), and its last successor ‘Anders omgaan met water’(V&W, 2 000) mark a change from accent, just as the 4th National Plan of Environmental Policy (VROM, 2 001) compared with its predecessors. Which change of accent is that?

153 Which future problems in watermanagement and proposed solutions have a great impact on landuse in the Netherlands? Which solutions are proposed in the 4th National Plan of Watermanagement Policy (V&W, 1998), and its last successor ‘Anders omgaan met water’(V&W, 2 000)?

154 What is structure and why can it be developed separately as a design category between form and function, and how can one recognise structure in the drawing?

155 Give an example of polarity between ‘open’ and ‘closed’ on five different levels of scale. Are they positioned perpendicular to each other or equidistant? Are they motoric or sensoric?

156 What is ‘function’ in the technical–ecological sense?

157 Give the main division of urban functions according to the concepts of George, Parsons and Jakubowski.

158 On which variable should one be able to classify intentions?

159 What alternative is there for freedom of choice by introducing flexibility into the design?

160 What is the fundamental problem that comes to the fore when we want to make a ‘programme of requirements’ for nature and what is De Jong’s suggested way out?

161 Which suppositions hides a legend using the CIAM typology of living, working, recreating and travelling for a district sketch (R=1km, r=100m)?

162 Give a meaning to each cell in Fig. 1089 in words or in small illustrations. Make – whether on location or not – a design sketch in the five colours in which all transitions occur, each in at least four directions of the compass. Make a detailed design sketch of at least three transitions. Then characterise each area by means of its boundaries.


Editor/author: T.M. de Jong (ed.)

Authors: C. van den Akker

D. de Bruin

M.J. Moens-Gigengack

C.M. Steenbergen

M.W.M. van den Toorn

Book production and design: T. M. de Jong

Cover and frontispiece design: T. M. de Jong

Published and distributed by: Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde

2007, Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde

Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture

P.O. Box 5043

2600 GA Delft

The Netherlands

Telephone: +31 15 27 84737

Telefax: +31 15 27 83030

AR2U070 Territory publications 2007

  • 2 WIND, SOUND AND NOISE exercises .xls
  • 3 WATER, NETWORKS AND CROSSINGS exercises .xls
  • 5 LIFE, ECOLOGY AND NATURE exercises .xls
  • 7 LEGENDS FOR DESIGN exercises .xls
  • Introduction exercises .xls
  • Mathematics next to senses
  • Re-constructing behaviours
  • Systematic encyclopaedia
  • Non-disciplinary combinations like sun and plantation
  • Earth and subterranian infrastructure
  • Life and demography, genius loci
  • Evolution and design methods
  • Legends for design and composition
  • References on Introduction
  • 1Sun, energy and plants exercises .xls
  • 2Wind, sound and noise exercises .xls
  • 3Water, networks and crossings
  • 4Earth, soil pollution and site preparation exercises .xls
  • 5Life, ecology and nature exercises .xls
  • 6Living, human density and environment exercises .xls
  • 7Legends for design exercises .xls

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