The principle on which the Norsepower Rotor Sail operates is known as the Magnus effect. When wind meets the spinning Rotor Sail, the Rotor Sail accelerates air flow on one side of the Rotor Sail and restricts the air flow on the opposite side of the Rotor Sail. The resulting pressure difference creates a force that is perpendicular to the wind flow direction – a lift force. The circulatory flow, created here by the skin friction, is the same phenomena that creates lift for an aircraft wing. The same principle applies to rotating spheres and cylinders. This can also be observed for example in golf, tennis or football, where spinning balls curve in flight.
Norsepower Rotor Sail
The thrust induced by the Magnus effect can be utilized in ship propulsion by placing a cylinder on the open deck of the vessel and by rotating it around its main, vertical axis. An electric drive system that is powered by the auxiliary grid in the vessel is used for rotation of the Rotor Sail.
The Magnus effect-based solution has the potential to be ten times more efficient than a conventional sail because more lift is produced with a much smaller sail area. Due to its simplicity, it requires no reefing or crew. It is "push button wind propulsion" from the bridge. This allows the main engines to be throttled back, saving fuel and emissions while providing the power needed to maintain speed and voyage time. The technology was originally invented by Finnish engineer Sigurd Savonius and was later demonstrated by Anton Flettner in an Atlantic crossing that took place in 1926.
The original basic engineering solution has a limited degree of sophistication, but Norsepower has created various new improvements for which patents have recently been granted.
The required number of Norsepower Rotor Sails, the size of the sails, and the position of each sail are based on the following vessel-specific factors:
Total thrust to be achieved with the Rotor Sails.
Aerodynamic properties of the vessel i.e. location of superstructures, cranes, etc. and potential interference between the rotors.
Existing support structures in the vessel for the rotor foundations
Influence of the Rotor Sails on the stability of the vessel.
Influence of the Rotor Sails on control and maneuverability of the vessel.
visibility from the bridge, and the potential effect on radar and navigational lights
fire hazard from dangerous cargos, icing in winter, safe working area for crew on deck
Maintenance requirements and accessibility to the Rotor Sails
Norsepower Rotor Sails are available in three different models. They come with a Rotor Sail height of 18, 24 or 30 metres. The Norsepower Rotor Sail Solution is typically delivered as a full-service solution that includes both delivery and maintenance of the hardware and software.
Maersk Slammed for Sidestepping EU Ship Recycling Law
Indian and international environmental groups are taking Danish container ship giant Maersk to task for its statement that the company is considering flagging its end-of-life vessels out of Danish or any other European registry to circumvent the European Ship Recycling Regulation and break the ships in India Owners of ships flying the flags of EU Member States must ensure that their ships are recycled only in ship recycling facilities that comply with strict requirements and are included on the European List. The European List will be officially published by the end of 2016.Maersk says it will have to scrap more vessels in the coming years due to oversupply and low freight rates in the container market, and the company estimates it can earn an additional US$1-2 million per ship by using beaching yards in Alang, India. After “Maersk Group’s recent announcement of its long-term commitment to create more responsible recycling options in Alang, India, an agreement has been reached for the landing of the first two vessels,” the company announced last month. Two Maersk Line container vessels, the MAERSK WYOMING and the MAERSK GEORGIA, will be recycled over the next few months at the Shree Ram yard in Alang, which is certified to the standards of the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, but is not on the European List. Until now, the Maersk Group has recycled its ships in selected yards in China and Turkey. The Maersk Group’s policy is to only recycle ships responsibly, the company says.
In his Foreword to Maersk’s 2015 Sustainability Report, CEO Nils Andersen wrote, “Today, the majority of ships are dismantled and recycled at facilities on beaches. Here, the standards and practices often do not adequately protect the people working at the facilities and the natural environment. We have decided to play a role in changing this situation. Alone and in partnership with others, we will work to upgrade conditions at recycling facilities on the beaches in the Alang area, India, while we remain committed to responsibly recycle our own ships and rigs.” Annette Stube, head of sustainability for the Maersk Group, said, “By initiating recycling of vessels in Alang at responsible yards, we ensure further development of financially feasible and responsible recycling options to the benefit of Alang and the shipping industry. This development will take time, but we are determined to work with the yards for the long haul,” she said.
“We will also have staff on-site at Shree Ram. They will be working closely with the yard to further upgrade practices, processes and facilities to ensure that the recycling of our vessels complies with our standards,” said Stube. Stube said conditions are improving in Alang’s ship recycling yards. Following several audits at upgraded facilities in Alang last year, the Maersk Group concluded that responsible recycling can be accelerated in the area, if the company works with the yards now. “The Alang plans come at a cost for us, but we will invest money and human resources to ensure we can already now scrap our vessels in compliance with the Hong Kong Convention provisions as well as international standards on labor conditions and anti-corruption,” said Stube. But the environmental groups are not reassured by the company’s statements. They say that the European Community Shipowners’ Association, ECSA, and its members have found “a convenient solution” in referring to the Hong Kong Convention, an International Maritime Organization Convention that is unlikely to enter into force anytime soon. The Hong Kong Convention was adopted in May 2009, but it will not enter into force until 24 months after the date of ratification by at least 15 states representing a combined merchant fleet of at least 40 percent of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant shipping whose annual ship recycling volume during the previous 10 years is at least three percent of the gross tonnage of the combined merchant shipping of the same 15 states. The IMO says the Hong Kong Convention is aimed at ensuring that ship recycling “does not pose any unnecessary risk to human health and safety or to the environment.” But the NGOs argue that the Hong Kong Convention does not ban the beaching method, nor does it introduce strict rules on downstream waste management. Moreover, they warn that anyone can hand out Statements of Compliance to shipbreaking yards claiming they operate in line with the convention.
Patrizia Heidegger, executive director of the NGO Shipbreaking Platform, said, “Maersk has sent a clear signal: either European environmental regulation accommodates for its practices in India, or the world’s largest ship owner will just ignore the Ship Recycling Regulation by flagging out,” says Patrizia Heidegger, director of Shipbreaking Platform, a nongovernmental organization. “The threat to resort to non-European flags amounts to blackmailing lawmakers who seek to ensure that European ship owners have to maintain European standards in their business activities around the world,” said Heidegger. The Clean Shipping Coalition, the only global environmental organization that focuses just on shipping issues, decries pollution caused by shipbreaking on beaches. The pollution is caused by the dispersal of debris, including toxic paint chips, into the intertidal zone; improper downstream disposal of toxic waste; cracked concrete areas for final demolition; poor accommodations for workers; and an absence of proper environmental impact assessments and permits. The Coalition’s nine members are: the Air Pollution & Climate Secretariat; Bellona Foundation; Clean Air Task Force; Environmental Defense Fund; Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union; Oceana; Seas at Risk; the North Sea Foundation; and Transport & Environment. Coalition president John Maggs said, “Maersk is a European company and should abide by European laws. Suggesting that it might use a flag of convenience to escape EU shipbreaking rules designed to protect the environment and worker safety is scandalous, and will seriously undermine its credibility as a responsible ship owner and operator.”Maggs also serves as a senior policy advisor at Seas At Risk, a marine protection umbrella organisation of environmental NGOs from across Europe that includes 30 member groups in 16 countries. Sotiris Raptis, shipping officer at Transport & Environment, said, “While Maersk supports innovation in reducing air polluting emissions, this move shows a cavalier attitude towards the environmental impacts of dismantling ships in the intertidal zone. Maersk needs to reverse course on practices that it previously denounced and that would never be allowed in Europe. ”The Seattle-based nonprofit Basel Action Network, BAN, has been working against shipbreaking on beaches for years. The group describes what happens on these South Asian beaches. "At high tides each month, companies sail huge vessels at full speed up onto the shores. When the tides recede, local workers begin tearing the ships apart, piece by piece. Without safety gear – in baseball caps and flip flops, or boots if they’re lucky – boys and young men cut wires, blast through ship hulls with blowtorches, and haul huge pieces of scrap metal using their bare hands,” says BAN. Without basic occupational health and safety precautions, the number of injuries and deaths among workers is high. The International Labour Organization considers beach shipbreaking one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. Local wildlife suffers too. In Bangladesh alone, 21 species of fish have gone extinct and 11 are endangered due to shipbreaking, BAN has documented. Indian NGOs most recently expressed their concern about the beaching of end-of-life vessels in Alang after an April visit to the Alang shipbreaking yards organized by the European Community Shipowners’ Association, ECSA. The European ship owners invited government representatives from France, Germany, Belgium and the European Commission on the tour. NGOs, including the NGO Shipbreaking Platform and its Indian members, were not allowed to join the visit. The European ship owners did not make time to meet with the local trade union or the affected workers. Ritwick Dutta from the NGO Legal Initiative for Forest and Environment, based in New Delhi, said, “ECSA should be aware of the fact that environmental groups in India remain very critical with regards to the state of the shipbreaking industry in Alang. None of the yards in Alang have to undergo an environmental impact assessment even when they open new yards or set up new infrastructure.”“EIAs are required by the law,” said Dutta, “and they would ensure a transparent process, including a proper assessment of the environmental impacts of the industry, as well as allow for civil society and local communities such as fishermen to express their views. ”We share the Gujarat-based NGOs’ concerns and demand that European ship owners do not settle for double standards,” said Heidegger. “Ship owners should only use facilities that operate at a level which is accepted in the European Union. We and our Indian partners believe that the environment, local communities and workers in India deserve the same level of protection which is reflected in the European Ship Recycling Regulation. "To accelerate the upgrade of more yards in Alang, the Maersk Group said it is building a broader collaboration with other ship owners to increase demand for responsible ship recycling and to find sustainable solutions. A first step is a planned dialogue with Japanese ship owners in collaboration with the Japanese Ship Owners Association.
L'histoire de la navigation intérieure et de la construction des canaux en Bretagne. Une découverte de Saint-Malo à Arzal, de Nantes à Brest, de Pontivy à Lorient, le long de ses canaux ou en franchissant les portes de ses écluses dévoilant les paysages et les territoires d'une Bretagne préservée.
Collection : Itinéraires de découvertes
Publié le : 25 mars 2016
ISBN : 978-2-7373-7100-4
Reliure : Broché
Description : 127 pages; (26 x 20 cm)
Inséré 06/02/17 DOSSIER Enlevé 06/03/17
Recruiting and Retaining Top Talent at Sea
By Alastair Fischbacher, Chief Executive, Sustainable Shipping Initiative
With shipping accounting for 90% of global trade, the need for numerous and highly-qualified seafarers is a constant. A recent IMO study revealed that the current officer shortfall stands at about 16,500 officers and if trade increases, this may get worse.
There can be no doubt that seafarers and crews are the lifeblood of the shipping industry. It is therefore vital that they have a safe environment to work within, and a quality of life that is appropriate and in line with the welfare standards that we expect for ourselves within the modern workplace. Not only is this important because it is the right thing to do for seafarers themselves, it is also central in enabling shipping to market and position itself as an industry of opportunity; one that attracts and retains talented people, where they can develop a rewarding career and achieve their full potential. Providing such a workplace for seafarers is a key component in ensuring the long-term sustainability of the shipping industry. While progress has been made in the last two or three years, with the ratification of the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), there is certainly more that can be done to raise standards on a global basis beyond the minimum of the MLC mandatory requirements. Over a million seafarers from multiple nationalities work onboard vessels, and many millions more personnel are employed within the industry onshore. The welfare of these people is one of the six core areas of the SSI's Vision, which is to create a truly sustainable shipping industry by 2040.
From a welfare perspective the industry still needs to see significant development; from improvements in safety standards and labour conditions, progress in training, equality and other areas of best practice, there are a wide range of important elements that need to be addressed. In achieving this, the ultimate goal is that shipping becomes a recognised, sought after and highly-ranked sector, where people can enjoy rewarding careers, and where labour conditions are assessed on a level playing field across all segments of the industry, and where accident rates are reduced to be at least in parity with other relevant land-based industries. People don’t understand how much shipping materially and commercially contributes to the global and local economy. So what are the immediate challenges the industry faces, and what needs to be done?
A crucial first step is tackling the negative associations that shipping attracts from outside of the industry. In 2015, the SSI partnered with Southampton Solent University for a programme of research called the Shipping Awareness Project. The project is still in progress, but a summary of initial results confirmed a significant lack of understanding of shipping among the general public, even within well established port towns. At a basic level, respondents could recognise vessels from the cruise sector, as well as military ships, which feels somewhat inevitable. However, the majority of respondents could not identify a container vessel, an oil tanker or bulk carrier, let alone know what the vessels and shipping as a whole do for them. This visual lack of awareness is a significant factor in the lack of knowledge or understanding of the industry. People don't understand how much shipping materially and commercially contributes to the global and local economy. If people don't understand how important the industry is or that it is there at all, why would they be motivated to become part of it?Taking this a step further, not only is there a lack of understanding of shipping, or its positive contribution to society and worldwide trade, but whenever shipping is reported or profiled within the general public, the content is mostly negative. Think back to recent news stories: shipping's unknown contribution to global warming and of course, the Costa Concordia disaster, spring to mind. When you add this to the recurring stories about ship recycling and the lack of environmental, social and health and safety standards in Bangladesh and India, it becomes easier to understand the negative connotations the industry can attract. Indeed, it is hardly surprising that the industry is not widely seen as a bedrock of opportunity, or a place where someone might want to develop a rewarding career. This must change, but of course, the critical elements of improving welfare and opportunity must also be created and implemented in order to drive the change that is required.
In pursuit of this, and in terms of tangible action for seafarer welfare, the SSI established a Social Sustainability Working Group to investigate ways of informing and driving change. As part of this we initiated a survey to delve deeper into the quality of life of seafarers, in order to help create the context for establishing what more can be done to enhance living conditions on board vessels.
The survey highlighted that seafarers often experience stress while at sea, both in their day-to-day work, conducted in sometimes harsh environments, as well as the emotional challenges of being away from their friends and families for long periods of time. Seafarers, like anyone else, require suitable living spaces for relaxation and rest, with, means of appropriate social distraction and access to positive and empathetic support while on board. The need for a proper work schedule and adequate shore leave when in port were also highlighted in the survey. As I mentioned above, the Maritime Labour Convention was implemented to tackle some of these issues. It is fair to suggest that since it came into force in 2013, and now covers 80% of the global fleet, this 'bill of rights' has had a genuine impact in ensuring that the majority of seafarers have the right, at a minimum, to a basic safe and secure workplace, fair terms of employment and relatively decent living conditions. This includes minimum age, employment agreements, hours of work or rest, payment of wages, paid annual leave, repatriation at the end of a contract, onboard medical care, the use of licensed private recruitment and placement services, accommodation, food and catering, health and safety protection and accident prevention, and seafarers' complaints handling.