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Texts on Science


Text 1

His goal was to make it simple to use and a joy to look at.

He succeeded. The result was the iPod.

Briton behind Apple success story gives a rare interview to David Derbyshire

1 THERE are two things you need to

know about Jonathan Ive, inventor of

the iPod music player and the iMac

computer. First, he is the most

important British industrial designer of

our time. He changed the way millions

listen to music and helped liberate

computers from dull beige boxes.

2 Second, he is rather shy. He may

be one of Britain’s hottest exports, but

he does not usually do interviews.

“Don’t ask any personal questions,” the

marketing man from Apple warned.

“He doesn’t like personal profiles. Talk

about design, but stay away from

questions about ..1... .”

3 It is all a bit odd really. It is the sort

of instruction normally given before an

audience with the Pope, or even the

Prime Minister, rather than a chat with

a designer at a computer company.

But then Ive is no ordinary designer

and Apple is no ordinary company. The

Essex emigrant is responsible for

some of the most revolutionary

gadgets of the last decade.

4 In 1998, as head of design at

Apple in San Francisco, he

revolutionised computer design, and

helped reverse the company’s failing

fortunes, with the original iMac - a

computer placed inside a coloured

translucent television. It was followed

by increasingly clever updates - an

iMac that looked like an angle poise

lamp and one that looked like a flat

LCD television screen.

5 And then came the iPod. At the

turn of the millennium Ive and his team

of designers realised they could fit a

computer hard drive into a box the size

of a deck of playing cards and use it to

store thousands of songs. For the first

time it was possible to carry your

music collection in your pocket. Its

success was not just down to clever electronics. Critics said it looked

fantastic and was ridiculously easy to

use. Much copied, but never bettered,

there are 30million iPods out there


6 ..5.. all the pre-interview

warnings, it is a bit of a shock to meet

Jonathan Ive in the flesh. He is a

pleasant, charming and relaxed figure

in his late 30s (actually he is 38 but

don’t tell the Apple PR people) with

cropped black hair, jeans and a quietly

fashionable jacket and open shirt. He

speaks quietly and thoughtfully with

the slightest touch of a south eastern

English accent. Next to being the

world’s most influential designer he is

also the senior vice president of one of

the worId’s biggest computer

companies. He obviously believes he

has the best job in the world.

7 Ive talks down his key role in

‘inventing’ the iPod and iMac, stressing

the contribution of the manufacturing,

software, hardware, and electronic

teams in his charge. “Our goals are

simple. We genuinely try to make the

very best product that we can. We

have a belief that we can solve our

problems and make products better

and better. It’s a simple goal to

articulate, but a difficult one to ..6.. .”

8 Apple’s philosophy is that their

computers and music players should

be simple to use and beautiful to look

at. The fans say each product just

seems ..7.. . The latest Apple range

included the ‘impossibly small’ iPod

Nano, the first video iPod and a new

iMac – a powerful computer and home

entertainment system crammed into

the casing of a flat screen television.

9 Put Ive in front of one of his iMac

babies and his ..8.. is infectious.

“Look at this. When you put it to sleep

– suddenly there’s a small white light

that appears on the front. But you only

see that there’s a light there when it’s

switched on. If it’s not switched on,

there’s no need to see it. The aim,” he

says, “is to create gadgets that can be

used without looking at the instruction


10 So why is so much stuff out there

so badly designed? Why is it so hard

to programme a video or change the

clock on the microwave oven? “It’s sad

and frustrating that we are surrounded

by products that seem to testify to a

complete lack of care. That’s an

interesting thing about an object. One

object speaks volumes about the

company that produced it and its

values and priorities.”

11 Ive may not be a household name,

but he is not quite the unsung hero of

British design. In the last few years he

has won a host of awards. You can

sense that he is delighted – if a little

bemused – by the plaudits and praise.

But what gives him his greatest kick is

when people give him their iPod

stories – when they tell him that his

invention has let them rediscover lost

music of their youth, or when it has let

them fall in love with music again.

1 Welk woord past het best bij 1 in alinea 2?

A Apple

B his business plans

C his private life

D marketing

2 ‘It is the sort of instruction’ (paragraph 3)

What does the writer think of this instruction?

A It gives Jonathan Ive too much credit.

B It is normal when you interview famous designers.

C You would only expect it when you meet highly placed people.
3 What happened after Jonathan Ive invented the iMac according to paragraph 4?

A Apple counted on this one success for too long.

B Apple was back in business.

C Jonathan became world famous.

D Jonathan’s designs were copied by other companies.
4 In alinea 5 wordt verteld dat de iPod klein is.

Citeer uit deze alinea twee delen van zinnen die aangeven dat de iPod klein is.

5 Kies bij 5 in alinea 6 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven mogelijkheden.

A According to

B After

C In addition to

D Without
6 Kies bij 6 in alinea 7 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven mogelijkheden.

A achieve

B bear in mind

C believe in

D understand
7 Kies bij 7 in alinea 8 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven mogelijkheden.

A to become cheaper

B to get better

C to get more complicated

D to present a new challenge
8 Kies bij 8 in alinea 9 het juiste antwoord uit de gegeven mogelijkheden.

A astonishment

B enthusiasm

C irritation
9 What is so interesting about an object according to paragraph 10?

A how it works

B the way it looks

C what it tells you about the makers

D what its price is for the buyers
10 What is Jonathan Ive delighted about most, according to the last paragraph?

A the effect the iPod has

B the good reviews he gets

C the number of iPods sold worldwide

D the prizes he has won

Text 2

Solar powered Atomic Casio watch

£99.95 rrp £199.95 incl. free p&p

Accurate to within one second in a million


Brand leader Casio offers readers the perfect

combination of solar power, radio controlled technology

and an incredible £100 saving off the regular retail price.

Features include five daily alarms, 1/100 second

stopwatch, world time, 10ATM (100metres)

water-resistance, electroluminescent backlight, stainless

steel case, strap and solar-powered technology.

This superb timepiece automatically receives the time and date from the British

Telecom transmitter at Rugby and from Mainflingen, Germany, which have

transmission ranges of approximately 900 miles each. So not only will this watch

self-adjust for summer and winter in the UK, it can also be set to automatically

adjust to central European time. (The time can be set manually if required.)

Stocks are strictly limited.

Model: WVA-510DU 2AVER

THE SUNDAY TIMES DIRECT Solar Casio watch offer.

Send this coupon and remittance to: THE SUNDAY TIMES DIRECT Solar Casio

watch offer JH 266, Euro House, Sittingbourne. Kent. ME10 3US


Solar Casio

watch, SAVE




I enclose a cheque/postal order(s) made

payable to:


Casio watch offer JH 266

Value £ ________________________________

Please write name and address on back of

all cheques.

Or please debit my Switch/Maestro or



Start date___ Expiry date____ Issue



Mr Mrs Miss Ms Other_________

First name ______________ Initial _______

Surname _____________________________

Address ______________________________

________________ Postcode___________

DOB (dd/mm/yy) _______________________

Daytime contact number_________________

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Offer available in the UK only. Allow 21

days for delivery. If dissatisfied, please

return goods within seven days for a full

refund. No claims for loss in transit can be

made after 60 days. Offer is subject to


To order, call 0871 590 5902

quoting JH 266

11 Het Casio horloge in de advertentie van The Sunday Times is

A een cadeau voor nieuwe abonnees.

B een gewild verzamelobject.

C een prijs voor de snelste inzenders van de bon.

D een speciale aanbieding.

Text 3

Operating Instructions for use in your caravan

Please find below some useful points to take note of when in

your caravan.


Please check that the fridge is switched on at all wall sockets before placing your

food items inside.


Should you require a replacement gas bottle if your supply has run out, please

call into Reception or call 01289 381333 during the day or Park Patrol after

hours on 07850 381614.

Please note: ensure the lid on your gas cooker is pushed back as far as it can go,

as there is a safety device fitted to it which will prevent the gas from coming

through if the lid is not back far enough.


Extra heating is provided as standard in Gold Olympic caravans only. To operate

the heating please follow the instructions below:

Gas Central Heating Radiators – these will be operated by a timer on the

main boiler. There may also be an additional thermostat in the lounge or hallway

(similar to what you would have at home), turn the thermostat until you feel it

click, this will then turn on the heating.

Electric Panel Heaters – these are operated by a timer control panel which

you will find in either a bedroom cupboard, hallway or boiler cupboard. You are

looking for a white box with two buttons on – ‘Start’ & ‘Cancel’, once located

press ‘Start’ & the heaters will come on for 4 – 6 hours. If the heaters have

individual switches as well, switch on those that you require.

After following the above instructions, if you have any queries

please pop into Reception or call on 01289 381333 or after

hours on 07850 381614.

12 Je hebt met een aantal mensen een caravan gehuurd. Jij wilt gaan koken. Je

hebt de gasfles gecontroleerd; die is vol, maar je krijgt het gas niet aan.

Wat moet je dan doen volgens de tekst?

Text 4

One player, one book

In a world filled with complicated MP3 players and online

audio stores, it’s a wonder that anyone gets any listening

done at all. Playaway hopes to change all that by making

an audio book purchase as easy as plopping down a credit

card at the airport gift shop.

Playaway’s MP3 players, about the size of a pack of

cigarettes, each contain one unabridged audio book. Titles

include “The Da Vinci Code” and “Anansi Boys”, with more

on the way. The devices come with headphones and a

triple-A battery. When you’re ready to listen, simply pull a

protective tab to get the battery going.

The Playaway cannot be loaded with a different book, but you can add it to

your library and listen to it again and again.

A small screen shows the elapsed time, and the device has buttons for fastforwarding,

rewinding, adding bookmarks and skipping chapters.

There’s even a Voice Speed button, which compresses the audio slightly,

reducing the total playing time without sacrificing audio quality. The devices are

available at bookshops, retail stores and online for $35 to $50.

IPod owners may smirk at a one-book-only device, but I think Playaway may

be the easiest and fastest way to get from the store to Chapter 1.

John Biggs (NYT)
13 Wat vindt John Biggs van de Playaway?

Hij vindt

A dat de Playaway makkelijker via internet op te laden zou moeten zijn.

B de Playaway vooral aantrekkelijk omdat hij makkelijk te gebruiken is.

C het jammer dat er maar een enkel boek op de Playaway staat.

Text 5

Computer Police

By Richard Edward

Crime Correspondent

BEDFORDSHIRE Police issued

1,000 front-line officers with

BlackBerry devices so that they

could spend less time at their desks

and ‘more time deterring and solving


However, the force has moved to

disable the game options such as

‘bat and ball’ on the gadgets after

officers were caught playing with

them in meetings.

Police officers have been

rebuked for playing games on the

newly issued hand-held computers

which were championed by Gordon

Brown1) for allowing police to spend

more time on the beat.

The devices were issued

nationwide this year to enable

officers to access the Police National

Computer (PNC), briefings,

intelligence and warrants databases.

About 10,000 of the devices were

sent to 27 police forces, costing

£50 million.

The Prime Minister claimed they

could cut average paperwork by 99

minutes a shift although some

officers complained that the devices

were less efficient than a notepad

and pen.

Bedfordshire Police were unavailable for comment.

  1. Gordon Brown: toenmalige premier

14 Wat wordt in dit artikel onder andere duidelijk over politieagenten in Bedfordshire?

A Ze hebben een tekort aan goede computerapparatuur.

B Ze hebben te weinig tijd om alle politiegegevens digitaal te verwerken.

C Ze hebben weinig mensen met goede computervaardigheden.

D Ze spelen te veel spelletjes op hun handcomputers.

E Ze worden met behulp van computers getraind voor praktijksituaties

Tekst 6

Brain Teasers

1 A while ago, the science writer Steven Johnson was looking at an old IQ test known

as the "Raven Progressive Matrices". Developed in the 1930s, it shows you a set of

geometric shapes and challenges you to figure out the next one in the series. It's

supposed to determine your ability to do abstract reasoning, but as Johnson looked at the little cubic Raven figures, he was struck by something: They looked like the video gameTetris.

2 A light bulb went off. If Tetris looked precisely like an IQ test, then maybe playing

Tetris would help you do better at intelligence tests. Johnson spun this concept into his brilliant book of last year, Everything Bad Is Good For You, in which he argued that video games actually make gamers smarter. With their intricate key commands, obscure rule-sets and dynamic simulations of everything from water physics to social networks, Johnson argued, video games require so much cognitive activity that they turn us into Baby Einsteins - not dull robots.

3 I loved the book, but it made me wonder: If games can inadvertently train your brain,

why doesn't someone make a game that does so intentionally? I should have patented the idea right then; Nintendo has since released Brain Age, a game that offers you nine different tests, some of which seem incredibly basic - like answering flash-card math questions - and others which are fiendishly tricky. After you've played a few rounds, the game calculates your "brain age": How mentally nimble you are, compared to the statistical averages of other people. Age 20 is the best you can do - the top of your mental powers, apparently - and by playing Brain Age every day, you can become mentally younger and younger.

4 Now, the science here is a little dubious. The idea of a separate or distinct brain age

is about as suspect as the increasingly disputed concept of IQ itself. Not all neuroscientists agree that this type of activity means you're thinking more intelligently. I'm quibbling, though. The truth is, scientists have long known that you can get smarter and stay smarter by engaging in daily, brain-teasing activity - and Brain Age certainly qualifies.

5 17 , for something that doesn't even seem like a normal "game", it's weirdly

addictive. The math questions made me so exhausted that I emotionally regressed to

about age ten. Brain Age also includes a Stroop test, which flashes the names of colors on screen in mismatched ink ─ for example, the word "blue" printed in red ─ and challenges you to name the color of the ink. As any psychologist will tell you, you can keep a lid on things for the first dozen words, but then your brain turns to jelly. It was more taxing than the first time I faced ‘The Flood’ in Halo.

6 Plus, when a game actually judges your intellect? Man, that hits home. After my first

round, Brain Age claimed I possessed the mind of a 68-year-old, and I nearly 19 . So,

I frantically plinked away at math tests for two hours until I got my score down to 33.

7 It would be pretty hilarious if games took seriously their role as cognitive food, and,

like boxes of cereal, began proclaiming their nutritional value. But of course, the very

fact that we still ruminate on whether games make you smarter or dumber is a symptom of how games are still coming of age in our media sphere. Nobody sits around debating whether the act of reading stimulates your mind, after all. But if you'll excuse me now, I've got to get back to some mental exercise. By this time tomorrow, I should be 24 years old.

15 How does the author of the article introduce the topic in the first two


A By claiming that an old video game cannot be successfully updated.

B By explaining why video games may also dumb down people’s ability to


C By illustrating how people looked upon gamers before Johnson published a

book on video games.

D By presenting Johnson’s theory on the practical value of video games.
16 What is the author’s opinion on the game Brain Age?

A He fears it will not be attractive for people to buy.

B He seriously doubts if it does what it promises to do.

C He thinks producing it was a brilliant move by the game company.

D He wonders whether it has been specifically designed for older players.
17 Which of the following fits the gap in paragraph 5?

A Consequently

B Indeed

C Instead

D Similarly
18 Which of the following effects did playing Brain Age have on the author

according to paragraph 5?

Playing the game made him feel

A careless.

B stupid.

C triumphant.

D worn-out.

E young.
19 Which of the following fits the gap in paragraph 6?

A cheered

B cried

C quit

D yawned
“It would be pretty hilarious if games took seriously their role as cognitive food”

(paragraph 7)

20 Welke zin uit alinea 7 sluit met een grapje aan bij deze opmerking?

Citeer de eerste twee woorden van deze zin.

21 What is the main purpose of this article?

A To criticise theories behind recent developments in the gaming business.

B To explain the author’s preference for a specific kind of video game.

C To inform readers about the mind-stimulating effects that playing certain

video games can have.

D To warn people against the possibly damaging effects of playing video


Text 7

Darwin’s Revenge

Why are we getting fat?

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