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Yvette Spekenbrink

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Yvette Spekenbrink



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Hoofdstuk 6. Referenties


Abdullah A.S.M., Fielding R., Hedley A.J. Travel, sexual behaviour, and the risk of

contracting sexually transmitted diseases. HKMJ 1998; 4: 137-44.
Bellis, M.A., Hughes, K., Thomson, R., Bennet, A. (2004) Sexual transmitted

infections, 80: 43 – 47.
Black, P. (1997). Sexual behaviour and travel: Quantitative and qualitative

perspectives on the behaviour of genitourinary medicine clinic attenders. In S. Clift, & P. Grabowski (Eds.), Tourism and Health: Risks, Research and Responses (pp. 164-180). London, England: Pinter.


Bloor, M. (1995). HIV-related risk behaviour among international travellers: An

Overview. In D. Fitzsimons, V. Hardy, & K. Tolley (Eds.), the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS in Europe (pp. 189 – 197). London, England: Cassell.


Boer, H., Mashamba, M. T. (2006) Gender power imbalance and differential

psychosocial correlates of intended condom use among male and female adolescents from Venda, South Africa.


Egan, C. (2004). Backpackers at risk: need for education on sexually transmissible

infections. Positive Partnership – From Policy to Primary Care, 16 th Annual Conference of the Australian Society for HIV Medicine 2 – 4. National Convention Centre Canberra Australia.


Eiser, R. & Ford, N. (1995). Sexual relationships on holiday: A case of situational

disinhibition? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 323-339.


Hedley A.J., Abdullah A.S. (1996). Travel in south-east Asia: some backpacker and

package holiday perspectives. Diploma in Travel Medicine course, module 2, unit 13. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.


Kalichman, S.C., Sikkema, K.J., Kelly, J.A., Bulto, M. (1995). Use of a brief

behavioural skills intervention to prevent HIV infection among chronic mentally ill adults. Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA; 46 (3): 275-280.


Kaplan, R.M., Saccuzo, D.P. (2001). Psychological testing, principles, applications,

and issues.


Loker-Murphy, L., & Pearce, P.L. (1995) Young budget travellers: Backpackers in

Australia. Annals of Tourism Research, 22, 819 – 843


Mårdh, P.A. (2001) Sexualkontakte auf Fernreisen. Abteilung Gynäkologie und

Geburtshilfe, Universität Lund, 34: 413 – 415.
Murphy, D. (2004). Backpackers snub casual sex warning.
Murphy, L. (2001). Exploring the social interactions of backpacker travellers. Annals

of Tourism, 28, 50 – 67.
Riley, P. (1988). Road culture of international long-term budget travellers. Annals of

Tourism Research, 15, 313 – 328.
Shields, R. (1990). The system of pleasure: Liminality and the carnivalesque at

Brighton. Theory, Culture and Society, 7, 39 – 72.


Sloboda, Z., Bukoski, W.J. (2003). Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention; Theory,

Science, and Practice. Springer.


Taylor, J.S. (2001). Dollars are a girl’s best friend? Female tourists’ sexual behaviour

in the Caribbean. Sociologie. Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 749 – 764. BSA Publications Limited.


Wickens, E. (1997). Licensed for thrills: Risk-taking and tourism. In S. Clift, & P.

Grabowski (Eds.), Tourism and Health: Risks, Research and Responses (pp 151 –163). London, England: Pinter.



Bijlage 1. Vragen over de sociale cognities en de context


Tabel 1. Vragenlijst

Manier van reizen

Did you come to Australia on your own?

Did you make new friends in Australia?



Risicogedrag

Would you/did you have sex with a new partner without discussing using condoms first?

Would you/did you have sex with a new partner if you thought he/she does not use safer sex practices?

Would you/did you have sex with a partner you have known for less than two days?

Would you/did you have sex after using drugs or alcohol?



Aantal partners

How many partners have you had sex with since your stay in Australia?

Subsequently mark the circles with which partner you always used a condom.

How many partners have you had sex with in the past 3 months preceding your departure to Australia?


Condoomgebruik

Since your stay in Australia, have you purchased any condoms?

Do you have condoms readily available in your room?

Do you carry condoms with you if you go out in the evening?


Motivatie

I’ve come to Australia to relax and become less stressed;

I’ve come to Australia to learn about a new culture;

I’ve come to Australia to see it’s beauty;

I’ve come to Australia to see more of the world;

I’ve come to Australia to party and have fun;

I’ve come to Australia to meet new friends;

I’ve come to Australia to find a new partner;

I’ve come to Australia to have sex.



Attitude

Using condoms will make sex less romantic;

Using condoms will make sex less enjoyable;

Using condoms will be an annoying interruption to sex;

Using condoms will reduce my partner’s sexual pleasure;

Using condoms will reduce my sexual pleasure.


Sociale norm

My parents think that I should use condoms;

I care about the opinion of my parents;

My close travelling friends think that I should use condoms;

I care about the opinion of my close travelling friends;

My home friends think that I should use condoms;

My home friend’s opinion is important to me.



Eigen effectiviteit

I find it difficult to talk about condoms;

I think condoms are difficult to obtain;

I am able to talk about safe sex with my sexual partner;

I am able to ask my partner about his/her sexual history;

My partner will get annoyed if I suggested using a condom;

I am afraid of making a bad impression on my sexual partner if I suggest using a condom;

It is difficult for me to plan ahead on matters concerning sex.


Intentie

If my partner does not want to use a condom, I adapt to his/her wish

If my partner does not want to use a condom, I try to convince him/her to use a condom;

In the future I will always use a condom;

In the future I will not have sex if it is not possible to use a condom;

In the future I will demand the use of a condom, even if my partner does not want to use a condom.


Ernst (severity)

If I did become infected with HIV or get AIDS, I could become socially isolated;

If I did become infected with HIV or get AIDS, I could suffer from all kinds of complaints;

If I did become infected with HIV or get AIDS, I could become depressed;

If I did become infected with HIV or get AIDS, I could not be able to fulfil my daily duties



Kwetsbaarheid (vulnerability)

If I do not use condoms, I run a high risk of getting infected with HIV;

If I do not use condoms, I run a high risk of getting infected with other sexually transmitted diseases;

If I do not use condoms, the chance of getting infected with HIV is high.


Respons effectiviteit

Using condoms will protect me against being infected with HIV;

Using condoms will protect me against being infected with other sexually transmitted diseases;



Using condoms will protect me against unwanted pregnancy.

Bijlage 2. Vragenlijst



Questionnaire

Backpackers
in
AUSTRALIA
Aim of this research

This questionnaire deals with the opinion of backpackers about safe sex.


Please note that no incorrect or false answers can be given, since your answers reflect your personal opinion.
Be assured that your responses will remain anonymous.


Demographic information
1. When did you arrive in Australia? Date: _____________
2. When do you plan to go back? Date: _____________
3. What kind of education do you have? High school (please specify which

level completed)________________


Further education (please specify

and what you have studied)

_____________________________

4. Which country are you from? _____________________________


5. Are you in a steady relationship? Boyfriend / girlfriend / Single

Married / Divorced / Widowed


6. Sex: Male / Female
7. Age: ____ years
8. Religion: _________________
9. What kind of work do you do in your home country? _________________
10. Do you like Australia? Yes / No / A little bit
11. What do you like most about Australia? _________________________

There are a couple of reasons below to visit Australia. Please circle for each sentence the number that reflects your opinion most accurately.
Completely Disagree Neutral Agree Completely

disagree agree

1. I’ve come to Australia to relax and become 1 2 3 4 5

less stressed.


2. I’ve come to Australia to learn about a new 1 2 3 4 5

culture.
3. I’ve come to Australia to see it’s beauty. 1 2 3 4 5


4. I’ve come to Australia to party and have fun. 1 2 3 4 5
5. I’ve come to Australia to meet new friends 1 2 3 4 5

6. I’ve come to Australia to find a new partner 1 2 3 4 5

7. I’ve come to Australia to see more of the 1 2 3 4 5

world.
8. I’ve come to Australia to have sex. 1 2 3 4 5


Some backpackers also go to Australia to meet new boyfriends or girlfriends. The following questions are about your opinion on this aspect. Please answer the following questions by checking a “yes” or “no” next to the question, answer as honestly as you can, and be sure to answer every question.
1. Did you come to Australia on your own? ____Yes ____No
2. Did you make new friends in Australia? ____Yes ____No


3. How many partners have you had sex

with since your stay in Australia?

Please mark with a cross how many

partners you have had.

____ None

____ 1 partner 

____ 2 partners 

____ 3 partners 

____ 4 partners 

____ 5 partners 

____ 6 or more partners 



4. Subsequently mark the circles with which

partner you always used a condom.
Example:

I always used a I didn’t always use

condom a condom ○

1 2 3 4 5 6

○ ○


○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○


○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○





5. Since your stay in Australia, would you / did you have sex with ____Yes ____No

a new partner without discussing using condoms first?

6. Since your stay in Australia, would you / did you have sex with ____Yes ____No

a new partner if you thought he/she does not use safer sex practices?

7. Since your stay in Australia, would you / did you have sex with ____Yes ____No

a partner you have known for less than two days?

8. Since your stay in Australia, would you / did you have sex after ____Yes ____No

using drugs or alcohol?

9. Since your stay in Australia, have you purchased any condoms? ____Yes ____No

10. Do you have condoms readily available in your room? ____Yes ____No

11. Do you carry condoms with you if you go out in the evening? ____Yes ____No


The next questions are about the last 3 months preceding your departure to Australia.


12. How many partners have you had sex

with in the past 3 months preceding

your departure to Australia?

Please mark with a cross how many

partners you have had.

____ None

____ 1 partner 

____ 2 partners 

____ 3 partners 

____ 4 partners 

____ 5 partners 

____ 6 or more partners 

13. Subsequently mark the circles with which

partner you always used a condom.
Example:

I always used a I didn’t always use

condom a condom ○

1 2 3 4 5 6

○ ○


○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○


○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○




14. In the 3 months preceding your departure to Australia, ____Yes ____No

would you / did you have sex with a new partner without

discussing using condoms first?


15. In the 3 months preceding your departure to Australia, ____Yes ____No

would you / did you have sex with a new partner if you

thought he/she does not use safer sex practices?
16. In the 3 months preceding your departure to Australia, ____Yes ____No

would you / did you have sex with a partner you have known

for less than two days?
17. In the 3 months preceding your departure to Australia, ____Yes ____No

would you / did you have sex after using drugs or alcohol?


Some people like Australia, maybe some people don’t like Australia and think the country is a disappointment. The next questions are about your current feelings. Please circle for each sentence the number that describes how often it applied to you since you arrived in Australia. Work quickly, without bothering to check your answers and be careful to consider only the time since you arrived in Australia.
Almost Sometimes Often Usually

never


1. You feel rested 1 2 3 4
2. You feel that too many demands are being made 1 2 3 4

on you.
3. You are irritable or grouchy. 1 2 3 4

4. You have too many things to do. 1 2 3 4
5. You feel lonely or isolated. 1 2 3 4
6. You find yourself in situations of conflict. 1 2 3 4
7. You feel you’re doing things you really like. 1 2 3 4
8. You feel tired. 1 2 3 4
9. You fear you may not manage to attain your goals. 1 2 3 4
10. You feel calm. 1 2 3 4
11. You have too many decisions to make. 1 2 3 4
12. You feel frustrated. 1 2 3 4
13. You are full of energy. 1 2 3 4
14. You feel tense. 1 2 3 4
15. Your problems seem to be piling up. 1 2 3 4
16. You feel you’re in a hurry. 1 2 3 4
17. You feel safe and protected. 1 2 3 4
18. You have many worries. 1 2 3 4
19. You are under pressure from other people. 1 2 3 4
20. You feel discouraged. 1 2 3 4
21. You enjoy yourself. 1 2 3 4

Almost Sometimes Often Usually

never
22. You are afraid of the future. 1 2 3 4
23. You feel you’re doing things because you have to, 1 2 3 4

not because you want to.


24. You feel criticized or judged. 1 2 3 4
25. You are light-hearted. 1 2 3 4
26. You feel mentally exhausted. 1 2 3 4
27. You have trouble relaxing. 1 2 3 4
28. You feel loaded down with responsibility. 1 2 3 4
29. You have enough time for yourself. 1 2 3 4
30. You feel under pressure from deadlines. 1 2 3 4


In the last part of the questionnaire, we would like to ask your opinion about condoms. Please circle for each sentence the number that reflects your opinion most accurately.

Completely Disagree Neutral Agree Completely

disagree agree

1. Using condoms will make sex less romantic. 1 2 3 4 5


2. Using condoms will make sex less enjoyable. 1 2 3 4 5
3. Using condoms will be an annoying interruption 1 2 3 4 5

to sex.
4. Using condoms will reduce my partner’s sexual 1 2 3 4 5

pleasure.
5. Using condoms will reduce my sexual pleasure. 1 2 3 4 5
6. My parents think that I should use condoms. 1 2 3 4 5
7. I care about the opinion of my parents. 1 2 3 4 5
8. My close travelling friends think that I should 1 2 3 4 5

use condoms.


Completely Disagree Neutral Agree Completely

disagree agree

9. I care about the opinion of my close travelling 1 2 3 4 5

friends.
10. My home friends think that I should use 1 2 3 4 5

condoms.
11. My home friend’s opinion is important to me. 1 2 3 4 5
12. I find it difficult to talk about condoms. 1 2 3 4 5
13. I think condoms are difficult to obtain. 1 2 3 4 5
14. I am able to talk about safe sex with my 1 2 3 4 5

sexual partner.


15. I am able to ask my partner about 1 2 3 4 5

his / her sexual history.


16. My partner will get annoyed if I suggested 1 2 3 4 5

using a condom.


17. I am afraid of making a bad impression on 1 2 3 4 5

my sexual partner if I suggest using

a condom.
18. It is difficult for me to plan ahead on matters 1 2 3 4 5

concerning sex.


19. If my partner does not want to use a condom, 1 2 3 4 5

I adapt to his / her wish.


20. If my partner does not want to use a condom, 1 2 3 4 5

I try to convince him / her to use a condom.


21. In the future I will always use a condom. 1 2 3 4 5
22. In the future I will not have sex if it is not 1 2 3 4 5

possible to use a condom.


23. In the future I will demand the use of a 1 2 3 4 5

condom, even if my partner does not want to

use a condom.
24. If I do not use condoms, I run a high risk of 1 2 3 4 5

getting infected with HIV.

Completely Disagree Neutral Agree Completely

disagree agree

25. If I do not use condoms, I run a high risk of 1 2 3 4 5

getting infected with other sexually transmitted

diseases.
26. If I do not use condoms, the chance of getting 1 2 3 4 5

infected with HIV is high.


27. If I did become infected with HIV or get 1 2 3 4 5

AIDS, I could become socially isolated.


28. If I did become infected with HIV or get 1 2 3 4 5

AIDS, I could suffer from all kinds of

complaints.
29. If I did become infected with HIV or get 1 2 3 4 5

AIDS, I could become depressed.


30. If I did become infected with HIV or get 1 2 3 4 5

AIDS, I could not be able to fulfil my daily

duties.
31. Using condoms will protect me against being 1 2 3 4 5

infected with HIV.


32. Using condoms will protect me against being 1 2 3 4 5

infected with other sexually transmitted

diseases.
33. Using condoms will protect me against un- 1 2 3 4 5

wanted pregnancy.




Thank you very much for filling in this questionnaire!



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  • Bijlage 1. Vragen over de sociale cognities en de context
  • Thank you very much for filling in this questionnaire!

  • Dovnload 381.6 Kb.